Vol. 6 & Issue 1 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Nov.2015 to Jan.2016

 

Study of the potential impact of mine activity on heavy metal fractionation of agricultural soils around an abandoned mine near Marrakech city – Morocco

Barkouch Yassir, Khadiri Mohy Eddine, Ait Melloul Abdelaziz,Maaroufi Ghizlan, Alain Pineau

  • Abstract

    The chemical forms of some heavy metals in soils and mine tailings around Kettara mine in north-west of Marrakech city (Morocco) were studied by determining soil Cu, Pb, Se and Zn species using standard solvent extraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric techniques. The Chemical pools of the metals indicated that the metals were distributed into six fractions with most of the metals residing in the non-residual fractions, suggesting how readily the metals are released into the environment. Considering that the metals mostly occur in the most available forms, it is most likely that the metals must have been derived from a variety of human activities involving dredging, processing and use of metals and/or substances containing metal contaminants, a specially mining activity that can pose a risk for the environment due to discharge of tailings all around the mine area. 

A Study of Seasonal Physicochemical Parameters in River Narmada

Zahida Bano, Rajandra Chauhan and Najeeb Ahmad Bhat

  • Abstract

    The present study was designed to demonstrate the seasonal variations in physico-chemical parameters of River Narmada water for a period of two years from Nov. 2010- Oct. 2012. Water samples were collected on seasonal basis and analyzed for the estimation of water temperature, air temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen; total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, free CO2, alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, chloride, nitrate nitrogen and phosphate were also recorded. These parameters were compared with water quality standards to indicate probable pollution in the River Narmada. The overall water quality of the study sites remained within the safe limits throughout the study period. An attempt has been made to explain the effect of seasonal changes on physico-chemical characteristics of river
    Narmada water.

Isolation of Heavy Metal Tolerant Fungi from Industrial Discharge

Fatma Migahed, Gehad Fawzy , Ahmed Abd Elrazak

  • Abstract

    Industrial Discharge Effluent samples in addition to sediments near to discharge pipes were collected from four factories located at Mansoura city,Dakahlia governorate including ; Delta fertilizer factory (DFF), Talkha electric power plant (TEP), Marble and Granite factory (MGF) and Sandoup oil and soup factory (SOSF). Effluent samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters, heavy metal concentration and mycological analysis. Among the heavy metals Chromium and Lead ions showed a level higher than WHO guideless. Fifty five and Fifty six resistant fungal isolates respectively were isolated from the collected sediments and discharges of the four factories through the four seasons. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations for the resistant isolates were determined and the most potential resistant fungal isolates were identified. The most resistant isolates were found to belongs to genera Zygomycetes , Ascomycetes and Deutromycetes .

Assessment of drinking water quality to investigate reasons behind water borne gastroenteritisat Tissar Village Tehsil Shigar, Baltistan Pakistan

Ajaz Ali, Khadim Hussain, Syed Jarrar Hussain,Nasir Hussain

  • Abstract

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the reasons behind the water borne epidemic at Tissar Village Tehsil Shigar Baltistan. Some physical, biological and chemical parameters were examined from source, nallah, and water distribution network. Total seven sampling sites were selected for monitoring.Study was conducted during the second week of August2013 and water samples were taken using random sampling technique, from source, nallah, different mohallah (Prono and Thamocho) kohl locations andfrom different community taps. Water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Turbidityof each water sample was measured using portable testing meters and personal sense of observations for specific parameters like color, odor and taste. Microbiological analysis was performed in situ using Waqtech Portable Water Testing Kit through Membrane Filtration (MF) technique recommended by WHO to analyze water samples to detect E. Coli as indicator of pathogenic microorganisms in drinking water samples. However chemical analyses (Nitrate and Nitrite) of samples were carried out by using HannaPhotometer. The test results of all the seven collected samples revealed that water is exceedingly contaminated with highest number of colonies (E. coli) up to 217 at Prono Mohallah Kuhl location 1 and not fit for drinking purposes according to WHO guidelines except the sample collected from the main nallah. Samples from Prono and Thamocho are also chemically contaminated with nitrates (65mg/l) thus exceeding the prescribedlimits of WHO guidelines. Temperature ranged from 12°C to 20 °C, pH value recorded was 7-8, EC value was between 94.9-98.7, turbidity fluctuates between <40- <60 NTUs, color was cloudy while taste and odor were not objectionable. Sanitary inspection of channels and storage vessels showed that the water sources are highly contaminated with human and animal feaces. The main reason behind this contamination is traditional Chaksa and poor hygienic practices of the community.

An Assessment of Physio-chemical and Microbiological Parameters of water from Hunza and Gilgit River Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan

Ajaz Ali, Zakir Hussain, Zarmast Khan, Azfar Hussain

  • Abstract

    This study focused upon the determination of physio-chemical and biological assessment of two major rivers Gilgit and Hunza, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The data was collected during the mid of October 2014.Fourteen different samples were collected at different stations of both rivers. On the basis of sample collection, the whole of these two rivers were divided into seven different stratums. Seven samples were collected from river Hunza and the remaining seven samples were taken from Gilgit River. The physio-chemical and biological parameters which were taken to analyze water quality were pH, Total Dissolved Solid, Temperature,Turbidity, Electrical Conductivity, Salinity, Color, Odor and E-Coli bacteria. Some parameters were analyzed and assessed on the spot such as Temperature, Turbidity,Electrical Conductivity, Salinity and Total Dissolved Solid with the help of multivariate parameters. Few chemical and microbial parameters like turbidity, pH and E-Coli were tested in Gilgit-Baltistan Environmental Protection Agency laboratory. The data showed variation of the investigated parameters in Hunza River water samples as pH 8.200-8.500, TDS 14.300-32.701 ,Turbidity 107.90-173.00,pH8.2-8.5 Electrical Conductivity 28.100-34.900, Hardness 0.8300-1.9100,EColi 0.000 and temperature level from 8.200-16.100.In Gilgit River the range of these parameters were pH 8.300-8.500, TDS 14.900-15.800, Turbidity 5.87-7.900, Electrical Conductivity 21.500-23.300, Hardness 0.8700-0.9200, E. Coli0.000-3.000 and temperature level from 14.100-16.100.The major causes of contamination of water in both rivers were identified as due to household wastes and garbage.

Industrial Wastewater Treatment by Bioremediation Method

Trupti D. Phapal, Bhagyashree K. Magdum and Anil C. Ranveer

  • Abstract

    Bioremediation is the technique which is economical and energy consuming, and thus is prevailing all over the world .Here Main aim to treat ‘Sulphide’ from the waste water of the Dairy Industry. In the present study strains of Thiobacillus sp were isolated from aerobic sludge of distillery and dairy effluent treatment plant using standard methods of isolation and enrichment. Experiments were conducted using isolated cultures with gelatine capsule in batch bioreactor with initial Sulphide concentration 1320 mg/l. The effect of initial Sulphide concentration on the activity of isolated Thiobacillus sp was studied. The removal efficiency of COD of the waste water from the “Schreiber Dynamix Dairies” is observed as 99.17%. Different solids tests were carried out their removal efficiency were as follows: TSS-80.70%, TDS-75.16%, Sulphide-80.36% and PH-7.32.This project not only studies the treatment of the waste water by Bioremediation but treatment of waste water with the help of Biocapsule. Role of Biocapsule in the bioremediation is to make this process user friendly and easy to implement .Thiobacillus is immobilized in the on the Agar-Agar gel, which acts as a porous media or a residence for the bacteria, which again if fortified in the dissolvable plastic polymer which forms the cover of the capsule.

Exposure to Radon in Dwellings in the Pristina Region in the Vicinity of two Lignite-Fired Power Plants

G. Nafezi, J. Vaupotič, M. Kuqali, A. Gregorič, G. Hodolli, D. Kikaj, Z. Mulaj and M. Bahtijari

  • Abstract

    Radon has been surveyed in 51 dwellings in the vicinity of an open-cast lignite mine and two lignite-fired power plants in the Pristina region, Kosovo. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors were exposed in the period from March to June 2014. Radon activity concentration ranged from 41 Bq m−3 to 327 Bq m−3, and the resulted annual effective dose was from 0.74 mSv y−1 up to 5.83 mSv y−1. The relationships of radon levels with the age of buildings, building material and local geology has been sought and is discussed. No impact of lignite-fired power plants on indoor radon concentration has been observed. 

Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Tube Well Water of Some Villages around Samastipur

Priyanka, Surendra Prasad and A.M.Jha

  • Abstract

    Assessment of physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of tube well water samples collected from forty sites from different villages around Samastipur town has been carried out during 2015. The sites for collection of water samples were randomly chosen from different area of villages. The samples were analysed for physicochemical parameters like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH), total dissolved solids (TDS); chemical parameters like total alkalinity(Alk.), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3), sulphide (SO4), iron (Fe) and microbiological parameter viz. total coliform (MPN). In all water samples studied in this case 40-60% of the samples showed values above the desirable limit set by BIS. With regards to bacteriological parameter, most of the samples tested positive to coliform indicating microbial contamination of water in these localities 

Limnological Investigations of Lidder Stream of South Kashmir, J&K, India

Parveen M. and Arif Ahmad Shah

  • Abstract

    This paper deals with Physico-Chemical parameters of Lidder stream of Anantnag Distt. of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Midstream samples were analysed for Air Temperature, Water temperature, pH, CO2, Alkalinity, Dissolved oxygen, Chloride, Total hardness, Nitrite, Nitrate, Ammonia and Total- Phosphate. The analysis of Physcio- Chemical parameters of Lidder Stream revealed that Villages and towns which fall in the way of stream dump waste water and toxic wastes in the stream. This has caused pollution in the stream.

Evaluation of Heavy Metals Levels in Organs of Mackerel (Scomber Scombrus), Sardine (Sardinella Sindesis), Tilapia (Tilapia Zilli) and Cat Fish (Synodontis Clarias) in a Port Harcourt, Nigeria Market.

Ekpete, O. A. and Obunwo, C. C

  • Abstract

    Owing to various anthropogenic inputs in the water bodies in Rumuolumeni, an emerging industrial area in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, the concentrations of some heavy metals in muscle, liver and gills of Mackerel (Scomber scombrus), Sardine (Sardinella sindesis), Tilapia (Tilapia zilli) and Cat fish (Synodontis clarias) in Rumuolumeni market, Port Harcourt, Nigeria were determined., in order to establish the status of bioaccumulation of the metals in the fishes. The fish samples were prepared by wet digestion method using HNO3 and HClO4 (5:2). In this study atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) technique was used for the determination of levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb),cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe) and chromium (Cr) in various organs (gill, muscle and liver) of the fishes. The results indicate high concentrations of iron, zinc, lead and copper in the sampled fish species. A comparison of these levels with international standards confirms marked bioaccumulation of iron in the species.

Analysis of drinking water quality to investigate reasons behind waterborne epidemic at Ghulmet valley Nagar Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Ajaz Ali,Kamran Afzal, Khadim Hussain, Syed Jarrar Hussain

  • Abstract

    People of Gilgit-Baltistan especially rural inhabitants face frequent health hazardous because of poor sanitation practices. Bacterial gastrointestinal infections are very common, and sometimes outbreaks occur. The present study was aimed to check reasons behind the water borne epidemic at Ghulmet Nagar Gilgit-Baltistan. Water quality testing along with sanitary inspection of the entire distribution network was carried out during the month of August, 2015. Total twelve samples were taken from intake (water channel), inside water tank, outlet and distribution network for microbiological analysis and to evaluate the shortfalls of water supply system. Waqtech water testing kit was used for microbiological analysis which employs the membrane filtration technique and membrane Lauryl sulphate brute as medium. Results obtained from assessment of different physio-chemical parameters were as follows. Temperature value fluctuate between 14-18 °C, turbidity levels were 50-100 NTU, pH ranged from 8-8.8, and E. coli (colonies) were 6-27 at different sampling locations. During the inspection it was found that the water intake is insufficient, and not protected, livestock (cows & goats) of local community grazing at intake point. People used to feed water from open channel into main water tank to achieve the demand, agricultural runoff gets into that water tank, which is the one of the main source of water contamination apart from that overflowing water which gets accumulated around the intake tank from where contaminated stagnant water seeps into main intake source. All the samples taken from water distribution network revealed the highest contamination with E. coli an indicator organism of water borne diseases, falls in category B&C according to WHO guidelines and not fit for human consumption. Presence of this organism in water sample is an indicator of faecal contamination of drinking water source. Upstream animate activities and agricultural runoff around un-protected water intake point (water channel) is one of the main causes of water contamination and water borne epidemics at Ghulmet Nagar.

Study of the Impact of Mining Activity on Heavy Metal Concentrations in Water and Sediments of Tensift River in Marrakech City - Morocco

Barkouch Yassir, Maaroufi Ghizlan, Alain Pineau

  • Abstract

    The present deals with the study of the variation of the heavy metal concentration in bed sediments against the flow rate of Tensift River in Northern of Marrakech city in Morocco. A total of 120 samples (60 water samples and 60 sediment samples) were collected (two before and three after the entry of the extract mining sewage), during four seasons of one year period and analysed. The change in flow rate of Tensift River affects the concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments. The flow rate of the River decreased especially during the summer months and the heavy metal concentration in the sediments reach maximum concentration level. During the study period, it was observed that heavy metal concentrations decreased in the sediment with the increased River flow in rainy season.

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