Vol. 6 & Issue 2 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Feb. 2016 to March. 2016

 

Assessment on the Effect of Industrial Effluents on Ground Water Quality near Major Industries Areas in Korba (CG) City

Renu Nayar

  • Abstract

    The present study has been made to evaluate the quality of underground water of Korba city and its surrounding industrial areas. A total of 3 representative underground (handpumps) water samples were collected from different locations of industrial areas in Korba city. Water samples varied greatly in quality with respect to different physical-chemical constituents.

Comparative Studies of Isotherm on the Removal of Iron Metal from Aqueous Solution by Two Different Low Cost Adsorbents

Renu Nayar

  • Abstract

    Adsorption of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cu) onto tur dal husk (TDH) and coffee husk (CH) has been studied using batch-adsorption techniques. This study was carried out to examine the adsorption capacity of the low-cost adsorbent TDH and CH for the removal of heavy metals from textile effluents. In this study, the adsorption behaviour of some low-cost adsorbents such as tur dal husk (TDH) and coffee husk (CH), with respect to Fe (III) has been studied in order to consider its application to the purification of metal finishing wastewater. The batch method was employed: parameters such as pH, contact time, and initial metal concentration were studied. The influence of the pH of the metal ion solutions on the uptake levels of the metal ions by the different adsorbents used were carried out between pH 2 and pH 6. The optimum pH for Fe removal was 2.0 in the case of TDH and 4.0 for CH. An equilibrium time of 2 h was required for the adsorption of Fe (III) ions onto TDH and CH and an equilibrium time 3 h was required for the adsorption of Fe (III) ions. Adsorption parameters were determined using Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The results showed that TDH and CH all hold potential to remove cationic heavy metal species from industrial wastewater in the order CH<TDH. Results revealed that adsorption rate initially increased rapidly and the optimal removal efficiency was reached within about 1 hour.

Benthic Diversity and its Distribution in a Typical Tropical Ramsar Wetland

Abha Swarup, Zahoor Ahmad Dar, Kamlesh Borana & Arun Kumar Namdeo

  • Abstract

    The present study was conducted on the Upper lake of Bhopal (Ramsar Wetland) situated in the heart of main City. Certain physico-chemical and biological parameters were analyzed. During this study 19 families of Benthos were recorded, representing 9 groups which are as Diptera, Hemiptera, Tricoptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera, Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Mollusca. It has been observed that the nutrient rich sites harbour highest number of families. Fresh water ecosystems that are more prone to nutrient enrichment are found to harbour highest density of species. Nevertheless increase in nutrient level beyond a threshold level may reduce the intolerant species. 

Study of Bacterial Diversity in Coorg and Wynad Districts, Western Ghats

Divya K.S. and Jyoti Bala Chauhan

  • Abstract

    The investigation from February 2011 to December 2012, bimonthly, for three seasons viz., summer (February to May), monsoon (June to September) and winter (October to January) for six selected surface water sampling sites from Coorg district of Karnataka state and Wynad district of Kerala state of western Ghats were carried out for eight bacteriological parameters. The study showed that the biological variances in these six watercourses. The surface water samples were processed for bacteriological examination such as aerobic plate count, heterotrophic plate count, MPN total coliforms, MPN faecal coliforms, MPN faecal streptococci, MPN staphylococci, Escherichia coli count by membrane filtration and P/A test using H2S strip. From the investigation, all eight bacteriological parameters showed values which were above permissible limit in the period of investigation and total coliform showed high significance in summer season in all the water samples studied. The distance similarity matrix of cluster analysis and dendrogram was carried out. HPC and faecal streptococci are highly related and are playing an important role in the study. Next FC and faecal staphylococci played significant role in the study. Other bacteriological parameters are at low level. 

Reverse Micellar Extraction of Acid Dyes from Simulated Textile Effluent

Narinderjit Kaur, Sangeeta Sharma , Satindar Kaur , Ekta Khosla 

  • Abstract

    Textile industry produces effluent which contributes to water pollution since it utilizes many organic and inorganic chemicals especially dye. Decolorization of textile effluent is very important before discharging to the environment to avoid health hazards. Among several methods, the most promising method in terms of simplicity and efficiency for dye removal from effluent is solvent extraction using reverse micelles. This study explores the solvent extraction method to remove mixture of Acid Blue-1, Acid Yellow-17 and Acid Orange-7 dyes from textile effluent using cationic surfactant and a suitable organic solvent. In this method, dye is dissolved in aqueous phase and mixed with organic solvent containing surfactant. The effect of different parameters such as concentration of surfactant, concentration of dye, pH, electrolyte concentration, nature of solvent etc. has been studied in the present work. Almost 100% dye has been extracted from the aqueous phase at 100ppm initial dye concentration.

Optimization of Oil Extraction from Jatropha Waste Using Response Surface Methodology

Vikram Solanki, Kinjal Prajapati, Mayur Savsani, Shreyas Bhatt

  • Abstract

    Enzymatic oil extraction from Jatropha curcas was performed using bacterial strain. The optimization was done by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for pH, temperature, shaking speed and incubation time. For this Central Composite Design (CCD) was used for laboratory experiment. The response surface method was analyzed using Design Expert version 9.0.5 (Stat-Ease, Inc.) software. In this experiment shaking speed-incubation time; pH-temperature; temperature-incubation time were significant but shaking speed-pH; shaking speed-temperature; pH-incubation time were not significant (P<0.05). From the experiment the optimum conditions for maximum oil yield (8.96%) were shaking speed 100 rpm, pH 5.0, temperature 37oC and incubation time 48 hrs. ANOVA statastics showed that experimental data had correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.8596 with calculated model. The Coefficient of Variance (CV) recorded to be 11.01%. From this experiment it can be concluded that the central composite design was fit for this study and response surface method was appropriate method for optimization process. 

Benthic Diversity and Its Distribution in a Typical Tropical Ramsar Wetland

Abha Swarup, Zahoor Ahmad Dar, Kamlesh Borana & Arun Kumar Namdeo

  • Abstract

    The present study was conducted on the Upper lake of Bhopal (Ramsar Wetland) situated in the heart of main City. Certain physico-chemical and biological parameters were analyzed. During this study 19 families of Benthos were recorded, representing 9 groups which are as Diptera, Hemiptera, Tricoptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera, Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Mollusca. It has been observed that the nutrient rich sites harbour highest number of families. Fresh water ecosystems that are more prone to nutrient enrichment are found to harbour highest density of species. Nevertheless increase in nutrient level beyond a threshold level may reduce the intolerant species. 

Challenges in E Waste Management in India: A Comparison between Formal & Informal Sectors

A Bhattacharya

  • Abstract

    With the rise in the Electrical & Electronics Good Industry, there is quantum jump in the generation rate of E Waste in the country. This rate is further fueled by the continuous inflow of E Waste from Developed countries taking advantage of the lacuna in the E Waste Handling & Management Regulatory Norms in India. Although the amount of E Waste being available for processing is on a rise, the number of Authorized parties is still limited. These organized and authorized parties are further challenged by the growing unorganized sector which is using crude methods of recycling. This paper concentrates more of way forward on how both organized & unorganized sector can work together to share the pie on E Waste available in market and make sustainable Business Operations and thereby making effective E Waste handling possible in India.

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soil, Water and Vegetables of the Dinajpur-Rangpur Highway in Bangladesh

Mohammad Jahidul Islam, Md. Shazadur Rahman, Md. Abdullah Al Mamun, Fatiha Farhana, Md. Shamsuzzoha, Md. Hassanur Rahman, MohoshenaAktar, Md. Abu Hanif

  • Abstract

    The experiment was carried out to assess the levels of different heavy metals in roadside soil, water and vegetables in Dinajpur-Rangpur highway of northern Bangladesh. The order of heavy metal concentrations in soil was observed as Ni >Pb> Cr >Cd and in water Pb> Ni > Cr > Cd. Concentrations of heavy metals in water were lower than the recommended maximum tolerable levels proposed by joint FAO/WHO. Uptake and translocation factors of heavy metals from soil to edible parts of vegetables were reasonably distinguished for almost all elements examined. The results showed the presence of some heavy metals in different vegetables beyond the limits of WHO standards. The enrichment coefficient of metals indicated that Cr had the strongest capacity of accumulation from soil to vegetables among other three elements. From the results of heavy metals in soil, water and vegetables, we observed that the levels were high in the soil than water and vegetables. In case of Cr and Cd, significant correlations were found among the metal concentrations in vegetables and the enrichment coefficients from soil to vegetables.

Temporal Variations in Physico-Chemical Properties of Water in Coringa Mangrove Estuary Near Coringa Village, East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Yandamuri Ayyanna, Gubbala Rama Devi, Alavala Matta Reddy

  • Abstract

    The living organisms are greatly influenced by the abiotic factors in an aquatic ecosystem. The biodiversity and population size of each species in aquatic ecosystem is determined by the water quality. The physico-chemical properties of water in Coringa mangroves area, East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India were monitored for one year. Monthly changes in physical and chemical properties of water such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, alkalinity, hardness and salinity were analyzed for a period of one year from12th July 2012 to 12th June 2013. All the studied parameters found that the results of water quality are within the permissible limits to support aquatic life. 

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soil, Water and Vegetables of the Dinajpur-Rangpur Highway in Bangladesh

Mohammad Jahidul Islam, Md. Shazadur Rahman, Md. Abdullah Al Mamun, FatihaFarhana, Md. Shamsuzzoha, Md. Hassanur Rahman, MohoshenaAktar, Md. Abu Hanif

  • Abstract

    The experiment was carried out to assess the levels of different heavy metals in roadside soil, water and vegetables in Dinajpur-Rangpur highway of northern Bangladesh. The order of heavy metal concentrations in soil was observed as Ni >Pb> Cr >Cd and in water Pb> Ni > Cr > Cd. Concentrations of heavy metals in water were lower than the recommended maximum tolerable levels proposed by joint FAO/WHO. Uptake and translocation factors of heavy metals from soil to edible parts of vegetables were reasonably distinguished for almost all elements examined. The results showed the presence of some heavy metals in different vegetables beyond the limits of WHO standards. The enrichment coefficient of metals indicated that Cr had the strongest capacity of accumulation from soil to vegetables among other three elements. From the results of heavy metals in soil, water and vegetables, we observed that the levels were high in the soil than water and vegetables. In case of Cr and Cd, significant correlations were found among the metal concentrations in vegetables and the enrichment coefficients from soil to vegetables.

Hatchability and Fertility in Broiler Breeder Stock

Tahir Hameed, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa, Muhammad Kamran Taj, Asadullah, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa, Ferhat Abbass Bukhar, Muhammad Masood Tariq Kiani and Ashfaq Ahmed

  • Abstract

    The fertility and hatchability at broiler breeder farms situated in district Lahore was assessed during the year 2011. The weekly hatchability was 84±4.44 % against cumulative hatchability of 85.35±3.10 %; while the weekly egg fertility was recorded 94.23±2.77 % against cumulative fertility of 95.09±1.66 %. The weekly hatch of fertile was 89.30±2.28 % and cumulative hatch of fertile was 89.75±1.84 %. However, the weekly chicks/hen housed were 3.50±1.11 against cumulative chicks/hen housed of 77.69±46.52. The body weight of dark out females on average was 3,733.75±153.50 g per hen, while the body weight of open sided females was 3,855.13±143.02 g. However, the body weight of females was 4,570.55±266.73 g per bird. This indicates that body weight of males was markedly higher than the females; and dark out females were relatively lower in body weight as compared to open sided female breeders. The number of total eggs set in incubation was 1,616,090 with mean±StD of 53,869.67±27,406.25; and the number of chicks dead within the shell was 16,161 averaging 538.70±274. The number of eggs set for incubation was 32,322 averaging 1,077.39±548.13; while the number chicks produced was 1,567,607 with mean±StD of 52,253.58±26,584.06. Total number of total saleable chicks was 1,091,983 with mean±StD of 36,399.46±18,736.32. The day-old chick price generally at 25 hatcheries was 39 to 61 rupees averaging 51.07±9.51 rupees. However, the total income of the studied hatcheries was 79,399,253 rupees averaging 2,646,641.77 ± 1,444,065.06 rupees.

Antimicrobial Effect of Microalgae against Spoilage Microorganisms

Emeka Ugoala, George Iloegbunam Ndukwe, Rachael Gbekele-Oluwa Ayo and Bola Mustapha

  • Abstract

    As part of the investigation on useful constituents in microalgae, we studied the antimicrobial activities of microalgae against spoilage microorganisms. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were assessed against Gram (+) and Gram (–) bacteria and yeast strains: Staphyllococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Baccillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenterae, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis using disc diffusion and microdilution assay. According to the results, the extracts generally showed potent antimicrobial activity.

Antioxidant Activities of Extracts of Freshwater Microalgae on Fish Oil

Emeka Ugoala, George I. Ndukwe,  Racheal G. Ayo and  Bola Mustapha

  • Abstract

    The antioxidant activities of freshwater algae from New Bussa, Nigeria were screened by using in vitro methods. The chloroform, ethylacetate, methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts was generally found as moderate antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of extracts on fish oil. The antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was determined using the procedures of iron reducing power assay, peroxide value and thiobarbituric Acid-reactive Substances Assay. Experimental results in this study showed that the algal extracts were able stabilize the quality fish oil. 

Assessment of Relationship between Soil pH and Macronutrients, Western Nepal

Dinesh Khadka, Sushil Lamichhane and BinitaThapa

  • Abstract

    Macronutrients are elements required by plants larger amounts. Soil pH is an important chemical parameter influencing nutrient availability. Considering this factor, the study was conducted to determine relationship between soil pH and macronutrients (total nitrogen; available phosphorus; extractable potassium, calcium and magnesium and available sulphur). The total 172 soil samples were collected from the three sites of western Nepal at 0-20 cm depth. The collected samples were analyzed by standard method in Soil Science Division, Khumaltar. To compute the relationship between soil pH and the macronutrients, simple linear correlation and regression were performed. The result revealed soil pH was significantly and negatively correlated with total N (r=-.65**), available P2O5 (r=-.65**), extractable K2O (r=-.16*). While, there was significant and positive correlation between soil pH and extractable Ca (r=-.79**), extractable Mg (r=.69**) and available S (r=.38**). In addition, with the increase on soil pH by one unit, N, P2O5 and K2O decreases by 0.056, 51.86 and 3.90 units, respectively and viceversa. On the other hand, Ca, Mg and S increased by 382.2, 46.09, 1.2 units, respectively and vice-versa. Therefore, maintenance of optimum soil pH (neither acidic nor alkaline) is important for reducing soil macronutrient unavailability problem in western Nepal. 

Adsorption Studies on Waste of Vegetable Methi(Fenugreek) For Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solution

Kiran Pakhale, Chandranayan Waghmare and Milind Ubale

  • Abstract

    In the present work the waste of vegetable Methi (Fenugreek) was used as adsorbent for removal of heavy metals like Fe (III), Cu (II), and Cr(III) from aqueous solution. The adsorption of all three metals on waste of Methi was evaluated as a function of varying adsorbent dose, temperature and time. The percentage removal of Fe(III), Cu(II), and Cr(III) by waste of vegetable Methi carried under different conditions,during these findings were significant. The order of adsorption of metals ions on vegetable waste of Methi was Cu>Fe>Cr during the findings.The adsorption data fitted well into Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models. The results shows that waste of Methi vegetable holds a great potential in removal of metal ions from aqueous solution. The thermodynamic study has showed that the Fe(III), Cu(II), Cr(III) ions adsorption on the surface of waste of vegetable Methi was physical adsorption and the process was spontaneous and exothermic.The study also showed that waste of vegetable Methi can be efficiently used as low cost alternative for removal of metal ions. 

Identification and Characterization of Bacteria from Dairy Effulent

Kamiya Bhola, Gaganpreet Kaur & Seema Ahuja

  • Abstract

    The dairy industry in India on an average has been reported to generate 6-10 litres of waste water per litre of the milk processed. Depending upon the process employed, product manufactured and housekeeping exercised, the waste water of diary contain large quantities of milk constituents such as casein, lactose, fat, inorganic salt, besides detergents and sanitizers used for washing1 The (BOD), with an average ranging from 760mg/lt in the untreated effluent; 1190-1230mg/lt. chemical oxygen demand(COD), which is normally about 1.5 times the BOD level, total dissolved solids: phosphorus (10–100 mg/l), Cream, butter, cheese, and whey production are major sources of BOD in wastewater.

Effectiveness of Ozone Gas in Raw and Processed Food for Fungi and Mycotoxin Decontamination -
A Review

Divair Christ , Geovana D. Savi, Vildes M. Scussel

  • Abstract

    This review gathers information on ozone (O3), a Food and Agricultural Organization, US Agriculture Department & Food and Drugs Administration generally recognized as safe (GRAS) gas for use in food processing (decomposition to molecular oxygen without leaving residue). It brings details on the energy source for O3 formation, application characteristics and decontamination effect in   different food, focusing on fungi inactivation and mycotoxins degradation. A comparison on literature methodology of application regarding O3 gas (concentration and time of exposure); food (type, contamination level or batch size) and container (volume, material type, sealed or hermetic), including the effect on fungi (total load, genera, species and spores susceptibility), their toxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, citrinin, patulin) and its efficiency/viability for fresh, stored raw and processed foods, are covered. From the studies and data reported, O3 has shown to be a promising and efficient decontamination “green” agent for fungi and their toxins in food (low or high humidity), prolonging the storage and shelf life time. 

Prospective of Agroforestry System for Forage Production in Arid Land of Saudi Arabia

Zamanan S., Fathy S. El-Nakhlawy and Elfeel, A. Ahmed

  • Abstract

    Arid land constitute a large proportion of arable land in Saudi Arabia. These land are characterised by low and unreliable rainfall and low land productivity. Comparative study was carried out to evaluate forage production under agroforestry system comparing with the production in conventional agriculture. Ziziphus trees as adapted species to arid land were used in agroforestry system with three forage crops namely, Alfalfa, blue panic and clitoria. The experiment was run for six month, crops yield was taken six times. The results showed that the production of all three forage crops was increased considerably over the production in the conventional agricultural system.

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