Vol. 6 & Issue 3 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : May 2016 to July 2016


Nitrobenzene Oxidation for Isolation of Value Added Products from Industrial Waste Lignin

Nandanwar R.A, Chaudhari A.R, Ekhe J.D

  • Abstract

    Among the main components of woody biomass, lignin is the most abundant raw material. Lignin constitutes roughly one third of biomass and is typically burned to produce heat and electricity within paper mills and biorefineries. As well, lignin obtained from pulp and paper industry is a major byproduct which poses an environmental burden. Due to its large availability as a waste with high energy content and presence of highly reactive groups, this industrial waste lignin has a potential for production of wide range of chemicals and materials. Lignin obtained from pulp and paper industry can be utilized through its degradation for production of important value added chemicals. Thus in the present study, industrial waste lignin was subjected to oxidative degradation in alkaline medium using oxidizing agents like nitrobenzene and m-dinitrobenzene. The degradation was carried out using thermal and microwave technique. All degradation products obtained are the low molecular weight compounds which were analyzed through HPLC. The degradation products obtained mainly comprise of vanillin, syringaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and syringic acid etc. All these low molecular weight compounds have immense industrial applications. It was observed that the extent of degradation was more in case of microwave technique as compared to thermal technique, which has reduced the reaction time and with greater yield of products. Thus in this way the industrial waste lignin can be utilized as a feedstock for value added chemicals. The present study has confirmed the higher efficiency of microwaves for lignin degradation.

Some Chemical Aspects of Gorubathan Ore in the Darjeeling Himalaya, Eastern India – A Promising Area of Polymetallic Sources

Tapan Kumar Baidya

  • Abstract

    The stratabound polymetallic deposit of Gorubathan (26050/N, 88043/) in the Darjeeling Himalaya of eastern India is a promising resource area for multi-metal prospect in the country. Besides a good amount of titanium-free magnetite (Fe3O4) the ore contains mineable quantities of pyrite (FeS2), galena (PbS) and sphalerite (Zn,Fe)S in the major three sectors viz. Daling Chu, Malkhola and Kharkhola. The ore contains 50-60% magnetite by volume. A reserve of 3.7086 million tonnes of ore with 3.77% Pb, 3.87% Zn, 0.14% Cu, 62 ppm Ag, 182 ppm Cd and 132 ppm Sb has been estimated. Bioleaching of the ore by the bacteria Thiobacillus ferro-oxidans has significantly affected the minerals viz. sphalerite, galena and chalcopyrite making the ore relatively enriched with Zn, Pb and Cu.

 Spectrophotometric and Thermodynamic Studies of Complexation of Octathia-24-Crown-8 and Hexathia-18-crown-6 with Cu2+ Ion in Acetonitrile Solution

Naser Samadi and Ehsan AmirMotalebi

  • Abstract

    Among the most interesting developments in chemistry has been the synthesis of macrocyclic polyethers. These comprise a large group of cyclic compounds which can bind metal ions by entrapment within an electron-rich cavity created by its inward-oriented donor atoms. In this work we have studied the thermodynamics of complexation of octathia-24-crown-8 (OT24C8) and hexathia-18-crown-6 (HT18C6) with copper ions in acetonitrile solution spectrophotometrically. Two series of solutions containing 1.0×10-4 M copper nitrate in acetonitrile in the presence of an increasing amounts of OT24C8 and HT18C6 were prepared and allowed to reach equilibrium. Then, the electronic absorption spectra of the solutions were recorded at several temperatures. The stoichiometry of the resulting complexes was further examined by the method of continuous variation and the resulting plot for OT24C8-Cu complexes is shown in Fig.2. It is evident that the OT24C8 - Cu2+ complex is formed in acetonitrile solution. The formation of 1:1 complexes in acetonitrile solution confirmed with the mole ratio plots. The formation constants of resulting complex in acetonitrile solution at various temperatures were calculated by absorbance measurements, at λmax of complex, of solutions in which varying concentrations of thiacrown were added to fixed amounts of copper in solution.

Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contaminants in Sediments of Aba River, Aba Abia State-Nigeria.

Akagha, C.I; Ajiwe, V.I E; Okoye, P.A.C; Nnadozie, C.F.

  • Abstract

    Heavy metal concentrations of sediments in Aba River, Abia State, Nigeria have been studied. Samples of sediments were collected from five different locations along the profile of the river. The samples were prepared in the laboratory according to standard methods, and the analysis was done using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The various concentration levels of heavy metals such as: Cr, Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe, Mn and Pb were determined in the River sediments. The results of analysis showed that the mean concentration of metals were, Cr 463 mg / kg), Fe (6,2940.0 mg /kg),Cd (412 mg /kg ),Ni (138 mg /kg), Pb (1,280 mg / kg), Mn (3,070.0 mg /kg), Zn (3,106.0 mg / kg) and Cu (526.0 mg / kg).The results of the analysis indicated that the levels Cr, Fe, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Mn across all the sample stations were above the WHO standards, while the level of Zn exceeded the WHO standard only at the Abattoir and DSAR stations. Also, the level of Cu at the Abattoir station exceeded the WHO standard. The observed levels of the heavy metals in Aba River are mainly due to anthropogenic effects. There seems to be imminent danger to the living organisms in the environment since the observed high levels do pose environmental contamination risk.

Influence of Turmeric and Ginger Intercropping In Mulberry (V-1) On Silkworm Growth under INM

G.S. Chandrashekar, G. M. Patil, Sudarshan G. K, Ashwathnarayana Reddy N., Vinaykumar M.M, Vijaya Raghavendra R And Ramachandra V. A.

  • Abstract

    To study the silkworm growth as influenced by turmeric and ginger intercropped with mulberry, rearing of silkworm race CSR2 was carried out 5 times in a year. There were nine treatments laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. At the beginning of rearing, one disease free laying was used per treatment and replicated thrice as per the experimental plan and leaf feeding was followed. Chawki rearing was done by using tender leaves. After third moult, 500 worms were selected from each treatment and reared as per the treatments up to spinning. Pooled results showed that larvae of silkworm fed by leaves of (T3) 5 t VC ha-1 + 75 per cent recommended inorganics ha-1 to mulberry + 12.5 t FYM ha-1 to turmeric recorded significantly higher larval weight of silkworm CSR2 compared to rest of the treatments and significantly lesser larval weight of silkworm CSR2 was recorded in silkworm fed by leaves of paired sole mulberry (T9).

Chemical Characterization of Organic Manure during Vermicomposting of Different Ratio of Leaf Litters with Cowdung Using Lampito mauritii

R. Karpaga Sundara Preethy* and M.Maruthi Kalaiselvi

  • Abstract

    The present study was carried out to reduce, recycle and reuse the enormously available waste leaf litters, waste cotton by employing indigenous earthworm- Lampito mauritii and produced quality vermicompost. The experiments were done in the following design by applying two different ratio of wastes Cowdung + Lampito mauritii (control) T0,Cowdung+ Mango leaf litter +Waste cotton +Lampito mauritii (1:1) T1, Cowdung+ Mango leaf litter +Waste cotton +Lampito mauritii (1:2) T2, Cowdung+ Guava leaf litter +Waste cotton +Lampito mauritii (1:1) T3, Cowdung+ Guava leaf litter +Waste cotton +Lampito mauritii (1:2) T4, Cowdung+Teak leaf litter +Waste cotton +Lampito mauritii (1:1) T5, Cowdung+Teak leaf litter +Waste cotton +Lampito mauritii (1:2) T6. The vermicompost was harvested after 60 days of vermicomposting and characterized the chemical composition of organic manure -vermicompost. The pH of the vermicomposts were reduced from initial to final product vermicompost. The organic carbon and organic matter were decreased in the vermicompost. Among the treatments Nitrogen (1.82%), Phosphorus (1.76%) and Potassium (1.22 %) were higher in Teak leaf litter vermicompost (T6). Calcium (2.72 %), Magnesium (0.70 %) and Sulphur (0.38 %) were maximum in the Teak leaf litter vermicompost (1:2) ratio as compared to other treatments. Lowest plant nutrients were observed in control (T0). The combination of Cowdung with leaf litters and waste cotton enhanced the nutrients (1:2) over the combination of mixture of waste (1:1).The results of present study suggested that Cowdung +leaf litter +Waste cotton are acceptable feed for earthworm Lampito mauritii and production of valuable organic fertilizer vermicompost.

Decontamination of Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao L.) Inoculated with Aspergillus flavus by Ozone Gas

Heloisa H. Kreibich , Divair Christ, Giovana S. Maria, Juliana Silva, Geovana D. Savi and Vildes M. Scussel

  • Abstract

    The ozone (O3) gas antifungal properties on Aspergillus flavus strain inoculated in dry cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) was investigated by applying a factorial design (22), utilizing gas concentrations of 20/40/60 μmol/mol, time of exposure of 30/105/180 min and 30 days storage. Trials were carried out with two main cocoa groups: Control Group (C –no guess treated) and O3 Treated Group (I, II and III - for three gas concentrations, respectively). The O3 gas was applied into the silos through an inlet aperture, left standing inside the silos (for three exposure times) and then cocoa portions had the gas antifungal efficiency, humidity and lipid stability variation measured (both, just after application at Day zero and after 30 days of storage). As expected, it was observed with the increasing of the O3 concentration (Group I to III) a fungi reduction and as the gas exposure time increased. The response surface showed a 88% A. flavus spores inhibition immediately after the maximum gas concentration and time of exposure reached cocoa beans, followed by total inhibition as the time of storage increased (when compared to Group C). The cocoa moisture content (previous 6.7%) reduced after treatment (6.1%) and the O3 gas conditions showed no cocoa bean lipid oxidation during the storage period. Under the current study conditions, the most effective treatment obtained was of Group III  (60 μmol/mol concentration) at the longer O3 exposure (180 min), as the response surface presented 100% A. flavus spores inhibition.

Cytogenetic Investigation of Rare Cattle Breeds of India

Rajesh Kumar Patel, Rosaiah Kotikalapudi and Nagaraju Naik Sugali

  • Abstract

    A cytogenetic study was performed on rare zebu cattle breeds of India during a routine investigation. The blood samples were collected from the bulls of five cattle breeds viz Punganur, Vechur, Kasaragod, Malnand Gidda and Gangatiri for cytogenetic investigation. The cytogenetic studies revealed 60 (2n) chromosomes in all the five breeds. The karyotype was composed of 29 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. All the autosomes and Y-chromosome were found to be acrocentric whereas X chromosome was sub-metacentric similar to any other breeds of Bos indicus cattle.

Formulation of Eco Friendly Print Paste for Block Printing By Natural Gum Extracted From Mango Kernel and Cassia Tora Seed with Indigo Dye

Dr. Sudha Babel, Dr. Rupali Gupta & Mrs. Mamta Mehta 

  • Abstract

    The present investigation was under taken to investigate the possibility to using natural gum extracted from Mango kernel and Cassia seed for block printing on Cotton fabric. These two sources of natural gum are cheap and indigenous. The print quality was assessed by visual examination and by colour fastness test. Experimental observation showed that both the gum can be successfully used for textile printing on cotton fabric as indigenous and natural thickener which is friendly to environment.

Assessing the Influence of Volatiles Compounds Produced By Flowers of Three Leguminous Plants on the Host Foraging Behavior of the Parasitoid Apanteles Taragamae Viereck, A Larval Parasitoid of the Cowpea Pod Borer Maruca Vitrata Fabricius

Elie A. Dannon, Martine Zandjanakou-Tachin, Léopold S. Gnacadja, Manuele Tamò

  • Abstract

    The importance of volatiles produced by three Maruca vitrata host plant in host foraging by the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae was assessed in laboratory conditions. Different odor sources consisted of uninfested flowers, mechanically damaged flowers, M. vitrata-infested flowers and clean air arranged in various combinations were tested using a Y-tube olfactometer. The influence of volatiles produced by flowers of three key alternative host plants Lonchocarpus sericeus, Pterocarpus santalinoides and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated separately. Results showed that A. taragamae consistently discriminated volatiles emitted by flowers infested by M. vitrata among the other odor sources, regardless of host plants. However, the female wasps did not show any preference between, mechanically damaged flowers and clean air. Associative learning was identified as a main mechanism in the host foraging process of A. taragamae.

M.P.D. Prasad ,V. Sridevi, Harsha and Mohan 

  • Abstract

    This study was designed a waste water treatment plant with an aim at minimizing and removing of COD, BOD, dissolved solids, and toxic compounds, before it releases into a water body. In the present study efficiency of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) in removing contaminants was determined. It was found that MFC is much effective and cheaper method for treating waste water and for the removal of TDS, TSS, BOD, COD, Sulphates and Chlorides, Oil and Grease. Batch type aerobic biological treatment plant was constructed and operated for Coalgasifier industry waste water treatment. The hydraulic retention time was 12 days. The treated water samples were collected for every 72 hours and tested for its pH, TSS, TDS, COD, BOD, Sulphates and Chlorides, Oil and Grease to evaluate the efficiency of the plant. Experiments are performed in batch reactor in optimized condition. The degradation of waste water has been investigated in terms of reduction in COD. Various process parameters like pH, TSS, TDS, BOD, Sulphates, Chlorides and Oil and Grease were varied and their effects on MFC of Coalgasifier industry waste water have been analysed. The results obtained were quite appreciable as it reduced COD to 94% and a small amount of 129mV has also been produced.

Effect on Substantial Equivalence of C.M.L and Alcohol Sprayed Fruits of Solanum melongena L - A Comparative Analysis.

Sanjeev Sharma, Seema Dwivedi and Kapil Sharma

  • Abstract

    The substantial equivalence of the fruits was done using A.O.A.C. (Association of Official Agricultural Chemists) techniques. As we know fruit is the only edible portion of the Solanum melongena L plant consumed by humans any detrimental deviation in its composition can pose a serious threat to human health. This study is also important because it is known that farmers are using C.M.L for enhanced yield of Brinjal therefore any significant change in substantial equivalence will be reported. As no work has been done in this field the amount of information from the practical research work will directly add to our knowledge database. Compositional analysis involved the comparison of chemical components between control and case of Brinjal fruit. The fruit tissue was analyzed for oil, proteins, moisture, ash, and carbohydrates using approved methods. The average results of all the samples tested revealed no significant variation in Fats, Proteins, Moisture, Ash and Carbohydrate content.

Components of Quantitative Resistance to Blight in Four Cashew Cultivars and Their Relations with Field Assessments

Menge Dominic , M. Makobe  and S. Shomari

  • Abstract

    Occurrence of blight on the four cashew clones named AC4, AC10, AZA2 and AZA17 was investigated under in vitro and field conditions, and the resistances of different clones to the disease were analyzed. AC10 (2.27 x 107) had the highest number of spores per unit area followed by AC4 (1.61 x 107), AZA17 (7.25 x 106) and AZA2 (6.67 x 106) respectively. AZA2 recorded significantly higher latent period (26 h) followed by AZA17 (23 h), AC10 (22 h) and AC4 (20 h). AC10 had the highest lesion size 3 days after inoculation followed by AZA17, AC4 and AZA2 respectively. AC10, AC4 and AZA17 genotypes had the highest number of lesions increase per day (2) while AZA2 revealed a low increase of lesions per day. Lowest mean rate of infection (r) was observed in AC4 which ranged between 0.10 and 0.29 whereas AC10 recorded higher rate of infections which ranged between 0.45 and 0.48. It shows that cashew clones AZA2 and AZA17 are more tolerant to cashew blight pathogen.

Impact of Makar Sankranti Festival on Water Quality of the River Narmada at Hoshangabad (Madhya Pradesh)

Agnibhoj Deepa, Wanganeo Raina Rajni , Wanganeo Ashwani  and Kumar Pramod

  • Abstract

    Mass bathing in sacred water bodies is an age-old ritual in India. Organized outdoor bathing is an important in situ utilization of water bodies, which demands water quality requirements for drinking as well as bathing purposes. This paper summarises the water quality of the River Narmada at Hoshangabad (Madhya Pradesh). The study was carried out during Makar Sankranti festival for two consecutive years i.e. 2009-10, during mass bathing activities. Pre, during and post festival, water samples were collected from three selected points of the Sethani Ghat viz., the main bathing platform (locally called Sethani Ghat), Circuit House (upstream of the River Narmada) and Mangalwara ghat (downstream of the River Narmada). The analysis carried out for physico-chemical parameters revealed significant variation during the festival period in some parameters. The study indicated that the river water quality deteriorated to such an extent as make it unfit for the drinking and other domestic purposes during auspicious days. The amount of solid waste generated during the festival period in the vicinity of the River Narmada is raising deep concern regarding its normal utilization. Present paper emphasises the necessity of adopting conservation strategy on war footing for the Narmada River as it has been prioritized for potable purpose for Bhopal Township.

Dielectric Behavior of Soil of Indo-Gangetic Region of Haryana at X – Band Microwave Frequency

Rajeev Kumar and Anupam Deep Sharma

  • Abstract

    When an elctromagnetic wave interact with a dielectric meterial, it is possible to reveal the dielectric properties of meterial. The paper presents measurement of complex dielectric constant of soil of Indo-gangetic region of Haryana (India) at X – Band microwave frequency. Four samples were collected from different parts of Haryana from districts– Ambala, Yamunanagar, Kurukshetra and Panchkula. The microwaves were allowed to be incident on the sample. A part of incident signal reflects and superimpose with incident signal to give rise to standing wave pattern. The dielectric constant is measured by using the shift in minima of standing wave pattern that takes place due to the change in guide wavelength on the introduction of sample in the waveguide. The real part (E ') and imaginary part (E'' ) of complex dielectric constant were measured at X – Band microwave frequency. The variation of E' and E'' of soil of Indo- Gangetic region were studied for various moisture contents. The values of E' and E'' increases slowly with gravimetric moisture content and then rapidly after a fixed moisture content. The results obtained are studied statistically, showed that E'and E'' have significant correlation with moisture content and sand percentage. The results obtained are in useful for various remote sensing applications .

Heavy Metal Concentration in Ceiling Fan Dust Collected from Houses in Navi Mumbai

Pallavi Deshmukh, Amit Gawade, Vitthal Shivankar and Laxman Gavali

  • Abstract

    Dust samples were collected from six residential places in Navi Mumbai,Maharashtra. Dust particle having diameter lower than 5 μm which is known asrespirable dust. They may be found in the range from 1-1000 μm in size and it receives inputs from various urban sources. Rapid growth of industry, population and transportation can contribute increasing pollution level in nearby surrounding areas including heavy metal in dust. Samples were collected from ceiling fans (which were not rusted) in a polyethylene bag. Dust samples were analyzed for the concentration of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Pb. In residential and industrial area, the heavy metal ranges from 0.01 μg/g to 1600 μg/g & have elevated concentration which indicate the anthropogenic sources of study sites. In comparison to other reported studies in the literature the maximum level of Cd, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were comparable or higher to those cities reported. Dust could be related to human health hazard and dust can be used as a potential monitoring tool for heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere.

Growing Approach in Adsorption of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution by using Inexpensive Seed Based Biomass: Review

N.G. Telkapalliwar and V.M. Shivankar

  • Abstract

    This review article is about the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution with the help of different inexpensive seed based green biosorbents. Present review examines and discusses adsorption mechanisms, adsorption kinetics and adsorbent modification methods. A summary of available researches has been composed by a range of potentially low-cost modified seed based adsorbents. The dependency of various factors such as pH, agitation time, dose, temperature, initial fluoride concentration and particle size for fluoride removal efficiency of bio adsorbents reported by researchers are reviewed.

Adsorptive Removal of Malachite Green using the Coke Obtained from Pyrolysis of Industrial Waste Lignin

R.A. Nandanwar, A.C. Haldar, A.R. Chaudhari, J.D. Ekhe 

  • Abstract

    In this research work the industrial waste lignin was subjected to thermal degradation at temperature of 5000C in N2 atmosphere in presence of ZnCl2 catalyst. The major product obtained after degradation is the carbonaceous residue (coke). The coke obtained was characterized by proximate analysis, CHN analysis, FTIR, SEM and surface textural properties. The surface morphology of the coke reveals that it possess high porosity and surface area, hence it can be utilized for adsorption purpose. Therefore in the present work, the coke obtained from degradation of industrial waste lignin has been used for the removal of Malachite Green dye. The adsorption capacity of the prepared coke was studied with various parameters such as effect of contact time, adsorbent dose, pH and initial concentration. The maximum adsorption for Malachite Green is found to be 13.19mg/g. To describe the equilibrium isotherms, Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied. The scope of this work suggests that the coke obtained from industrial waste lignin can be utilized as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of Malachite green dye from aqueous solution.

Seasonal fluctuations of the content of metals (Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd) from the sediments of the estuarine bays of the Ebrié lagoon in Côte d'Ivoire.

Aka. A. Maurice, Wognin has Valérie, Irie Bi. T.J.G, Coulibaly A. Sougo, World S, and AKA Kouamé

  • Abstract

    Estuary bays of Ebrié lagoon have one of the most alarming question pollution caused by the strong human pressure in Abidjan townships where they move around. The levels of metals (Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd) in surface sediments collected during the dry and rainy seasons (February and August 2014) have been determined. Moreover, we found out that concentrations in metals of the sediments are higher than those of the continental crust (UCC), which confirms pollution. From the most to the less concentration of metals, we have Zn> Cu> nor> CD. These concentrations increase from the dry to the rainy season. On the other hand, the determination of metal geo-accumulation indices (Igeo) has showed that pollution by metals is more in rainy season than in the dry one. About metals the most polluting to the less, we have Cd> Cu Zn>> nor. Selon Müller classification (1981), the sediments studied, progress unpolluted (Class 1) TB very severely polluted (class 6). Furthermore, the concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in the sediments have increased significantly from 2005 to 2014. 

    Summery: Les baies estuariennes de la lagune Ebrié connaissent un problème de pollution les plus inquiétants du fait de la forte pression anthropique des communes qu’elles délimitent. Les teneurs en métaux (Ni, Cu, Zn et Cd) ont été déterminées dansles sédiments superficiels prélevés pendant les saisons sèche et pluvieuse (Février et Aout 2014). Ainsi, les concentrations métalliques totales des sédiments sont en moyenne supérieures à celles de la croûte continentale (UCC), ce qui témoigne un cas de pollution. Pris dans l’ordre, du métal le plus concentré au moins concentré nous avons: Zn > Cu > Ni >Cd. Cette concentration augmente de la saison sèche à la saison pluvieuse. Aussi, la détermination des indices de géoaccumulation (Igeo) des métaux a montré une pollution plus intense en saison pluvieuse qu’en saison sèche. Ainsi du métal, le plus polluant au moins polluant, on a: Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni. Selon la classification de Müller (1981), les sédiments étudiés évoluent de non pollués (classe 1) à très sévèrement pollués (classe 6). Par ailleurs, la teneur des sédiments en Ni, Cu, Zn et Cd a augmenté considérablement de 2005 à 2014.

Contributions of Abattoir Activities in Delta State, Nigeria, To the Soil Properties of Their Surrounding Environment

Osakwe, Stephen Anapuwa

  • Abstract

    Soil samples from abattoirs in five major cities in Delta State, Nigeria, were analyzed to assess the effect of abattoir activities on the surrounding environment. The pH values ranged from 5.60 to 8.30 with mean value of 7.17±0.78 indicating that the soils were slightly acidic to slightly alkaline while the mean value for control sites was 5.66±1.21 indicating moderate acidity. Total organic carbon and total nitrogen had the mean values of 2.51±1.57 and 0.137±0.075 respectively showing presence of biodegradable and compostable materials. Cation exchange capacity had the mean value of 9.42±2.84 CmolKg-1 suggesting the soil moderate nutrient retention capacity. The heavy metals had the mean values of (mgKg-1) 17.87±5.96 for Fe, 3.65±2.92 for Cu, 0.08±0.02 for Cr, 0.20±0.19 for Pb and 2.87±1.49 for Mn. These values were significantly higher than those obtained for the control sites. The pollution level assessment of the heavy metals showed that the activities of abattoirs have moderate pollutional impact on the surrounding environment.

Low Sustainability of Development in Punjab Due To Agrarian Crisis

Surbhi Sharma, Vikas Chhabra and Samandeep kaur

  • Abstract

    Punjab is primarily an agrarian state where majority of the household are dependent on agriculture. The state is under crisis, leading to farmer’s suicides, drug problem and illegal migration. Punjab made the country self-sufficient in food, but when the problems were arising it was fighting a lone battle. All policies like providing them with subsidies and free power is not at all helping them. With time two main resources like land and water have sharply deteriorated overtime. This crisis is causing low productivity, rising cost of production, shrinking income and employment, depleting land holding, mounting indebtness and ecological damage. These all have raised questions about the future sustainability of development in Punjab.

Determination of Radionuclide’s Concentrations in Soil Around of Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center in Iraq by Using Gamma Spectroscopy Analysis System

Bashair M. Saied, Raad M. Al-Khafaji and Auday T. Al-Bayati

  • Abstract

    The measurement of the radionuclide’s namely 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in soil samples collected from 17 surrounding regions of Al- Tuwaitha nuclear research center in Iraq, were carried out by Gamma- Spectroscopy analysis system. The range of concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in the samples varies from (12.01 ± 3.47- 37.19 ± 6.10) Bq.kg−1, (14.05 ± 3.75-34.80 ± 5.90) Bq.kg−1, (285.30 ± 16.89- 490.95 ± 22.16) Bq.kg−1 and (2.92 ± 1.71-15.20 ± 3.90) Bq.kg−1 with overall mean values of 21.83 ± 4.64 Bq.kg−1, 25.29 ± 5.01 Bq.kg−1, 363.47 ± 19.02 Bq.kg−1 and 8.72 ± 2.92 Bq.kg−1, respectively.

    The radium equivalent rate (Raeq) calculated with concentrations between (57.60 ± 7.59 - 109.09 ± 10.44) Bq. kg−1 with a mean value (85.97 ± 9.24) Bq. kg−1. The absorbed dose Rate (Dγ) of the 238U, 232Th and 40K  radionuclide’s for the soil samples in the study area were from (27.70 - 51.67) nGy. h-1 with an average value of (40.51)  nGy.h-1 and 137Cs from (0.5 - 2.58) nGy.h-1 with an average value of (1.48) nGy.h-1. The indoor annual effective dose rate (AEDE)in range (0.14 - 0.25) mSv. y-1 with an average value of (0.20)  mSv. y-1. The outdoor annual effective dose rate (AEDE) out range (0.03 - 0.06) mSv. y-1 with an average value of  0.05 ms.y-1. The internal hazard index (Hin) range (0.19 - 0.4) with an average value of (0.29). The external hazard index (Hex) range (0.16 - 0.29) with an average value of (0.23).  The gamma Index (Iγ) range (0.44 - 0.81) with an average value of (0.64). The average values of the specific activity of (238U, 232Th, 40K and137Cs), radium equivalent activity, indoor and outdoor annual effective dose rates, internal and external hazard index, and gamma index, all were found to be lower than their corresponding allowed limits.

The Place of Adhesives Used In Agrochemicals and Chemistry

Elif Esra Altuner and Emine Özcan

  • Abstract

    recently there have been substantially significant improvements in pesticide delivery techniques. The aim of these improvements is to protect all products from diseases and pests and to prevent environmental pollution. Studies conducted to ensure low-dose and sufficient biological effectiveness in more advanced technologies. Spray adjuvants are used to increase pesticide and pesticide applying performance in practice. Adhesive feature of the item gained was measured. According to the findings, desired result was acquired. Growing of harmful microorganisms is prevented to phosphoric acid used for the products.

Assessment Pollutant Road-Side Soil and Farmland through Accumulation of Lead (Pb) due to Vehicular Traffic Activity along National Highway-4 from Nelamangala to Dabaspet, Karnataka, India

L. Sripathy, P. Rao, S. Yashwanth, A. Kumar, N. M. Jagadisha, N. Divya, K. R. Sharada

  • Abstract

    Background: Accumulation of lead (Pb) due to vehicular traffic activities on the road-side soil and farmland is a potential environmental hazard affecting the eco-system. Environmental pollution of heavy metal like lead (Pb) from automobiles has attained much attention in the recent past. Aim and Objectives: The present research was conducted to study the lead (Pb) concentration in road-side soil and farmland along a National Highway-4 from Nelamangala to Dabaspet. 35 soil samples were collected from the left and right side of the highway. Samples were collected at a distance of 10m and 200m away from the road edge. Amount of lead (Pb) level in soil was analyzed by using X-ray florescence spectrophotometer (model XRF-α-4000) and soil physiochemical properties of the soil were also determined. The results of the physiochemical analysis showed that the pH values in all sampling sites ranged from 3.55 to 6.58 and 3.65 to 6.36 at 10 m and 200 m away from the road respectively, indicating the acidity of soil. The total organic carbon values ranged from 0.00264% to 0.773% and 0.088% to 0.715% at 10m and 200m away from the road respectively, indicating the presence of organic matter and micro-biological activities in the soil sample. The conductivity values ranged from 0.002mS/gm to 0.026mS/gm and 0.002mS/gm to 0.036mS/gm at 10m and 200m away from the road respectively, indicating significant presence of some soluble inorganic salts. The road-side soil and farmland soil samples also had significantly high contents of Lead (Pb) and its level increased with increasing traffic activities.

Assessment of Ambient Air Quality with Special Reference to Cox in the Waste-Dump Site at Osisioma Ngwa Lga

Nwakanma, C., Ikwa, U. E., Ubuoh, E. I.

  • Abstract

    Assessment of ambient air quality with special reference to COx (CO and CO2) was carried out in this study at the waste dump site in Osisioma Ngwa Local Government Area in Aba, Nigeria. The sampling was done with some hard hold air quality monitors to determine and measure the concentration of COx in the environment. Results of CO and CO2 revealed for morning and evening hours reading during the dry season to be for Umuigwe dumpsite, CO (27ppm to 35ppm), CO2 (652ppm to 600ppm); Umujima dumpsite, CO (40ppm to 56ppm), CO2 (658ppm to 648ppm); Niger Stone dumpsite, CO (48ppm to 32ppm), CO2 (647ppm to 637ppm); Uratta Amaise dumpsite, CO(45ppm to 50ppm), CO2 (635ppm to 633ppm); Eyimba market dumpsite, CO(51ppm to 24ppm), CO2 (580ppm to 612ppm); Asaeme dumpsite, CO (14ppm to 24ppm), CO2 (630ppm to 593ppm) and Owerrinta control location, CO (12ppm to 11.95ppm), CO2 (820ppm to 97ppm). Comparison of maximum air pollutant in the morning and evening hours with standard indicated good to moderate air quality description values. However, the concentration of CO was found to have higher mean values (33-857ppm and 33.993ppm) than recommended standard by World Health Organization at 20ppm. Which may be related from this study to higher vehicular flow, incineration and general poor waste management. Thus describing the area of study as with poor air quality.

Studies of Zinc Stress (ZnSO4) on Seedling Charactersitcs of Oryza Sativa., L

A. Deepti, G. Sabat, M. Mahapatra, R.Padhy, B. K. Mohanty* and L. Patra

  • Abstract

    Plants exposed to Zn stress at high concentration inhibit seed germination, seedling growth and development. The effective concentration of the toxicant was determined by taking seed germination percentage into consideration. LC50 was found to be about 700 mg/l of ZnSo4. The maximum allowable concentration was found to be 100 to 200 mg/l. The germination data showed that there is negative impact of concentration of zinc sulphate on the germination of seeds. There is more decrease in seed germination at higher concentration in comparison to control. Root and shoot growth of seedlings was worst effected when exposed to high concentration of zinc sulphate. Roots were more affected and much reduced than the shoots. Morphologically they look different from normal roots by their size and shape. With the increase in concentration of the toxicant exposed seedlings showed a decline in chl-a, chl-b, total chl, carotenoid and pheophytin content in shoots. This was a clear indication that the fall in the growth rate, pigment content had direct impact on photosynthesis. Results shows that zinc at higher concentration decreases seed germination, chl-a, chl-b, total chl, carotenoids, pheophytin, amino acid, soluble sugar, and DNA content but increases in protein and RNA content. Our results suggest that the presence of zinc at higher concentration resulted in growth inhibition, structural damage, a decline in physiological and biochemical activities. 

Interactive Effects of Ecosystem Managements on Gas Exchange, Water Use Efficiency and Carbon Stock in Pinus Pinea Forests

Ennajah Amel, Kachout-Sai Salma, Khaldi Abdelhamid, Elaoui Mariem, Laamouri Abdelwahed, Fezzani Tarek, Cherni Tarek, Eleuch Syrine, Nasr Zouhaier

  • Abstract

    During the industrial period, the greenhouse gases concentration through the atmosphere has exponentially increased and water stress in forests threatens the resilience of forests to these changes. In fact, forests seem to be an important component in mitigating climate change. In this study, a pure and regular pine stands under two practices of thinning, has been explored. The variation of the water and carbon stock in forests is mainly related to climatic factors, soil characteristics and management. Therefore, in this study, modeling approach and individual measures of growth were used to estimate the carbon stock and the water stock in the soil under both of the thinning alternatives in pine forests. Besides, intercepted light measures, foliar gaseous exchanges, and microclimatic parameters have been carried in order to determine the efficiency of water and light use and the effect of thinned in each case. Results show that the dendrometric parameters, the stock of carbon, the stock of water in the soil are significantly higher at the site with two thinning than into the site without thinning. The variation of interception of the light have shown that the thinned site was more efficient than the non-cleared site and gas exchange measurements showed that transpiration (Tr) and stomatal conductance (gs) are higher in the thinned site. These results indicate that a practice of thinning can significantly affect the efficiency of water and carbon use and the light interception into an environment that is increasingly characterized by an hydric deficit and give to our forest ecosystems more resilience to the global changes already underway.

Air Pollutant Emission Modelling and Comparative Analysis of City Bypasses Following the Lithuanian Example

Ona Samuchovienė, Žaneta Stasiškienė, Jolanta Dvarionienė

  • Abstract

    The impact of transport on air pollution is directly linked to the implementation of sustainable transport development vision. The article presents the pollutant emission modelling and comparative analysis of bypasses of major Lithuanian cities (Vilnius, Kaunas, Šiauliai) and a smaller bypass of Karmėlava village and the impact of planned changes on air quality. Calculations are made by Design Manual for Roads and Bridges of the United Kingdom Screening Method (2007) by quantitative measurements of emission changes when planning bypasses and assessment of their impact on the environment also by European Environmental Agency air pollutant emission inventory guidebook (2013). The influence of emissions on local air quality and the impact on climate change (global emissions) with focus on emission savings, especially CO2 are estimated. For expert comparison traffic data and environmental impact statements of western, southern and northern bypasses of Vilnius city, Kaunas city southeast bypass, Šiauliai city north-east bypass, Karmėlava bypass are used. Identification of relevant issues of emissions evaluation can make it easier to choose the land-use planning solutions for sustainable urban and infrastructure development. The individual bypass emission savings depend on individual indicators, such as traffic redistribution in the street network and the total mileage decrease due to bypass length, speed, traffic composition changes, thus, saved emission limits vary from inferior to significant savings. This article is to raise a debate on the findings and issues that could be used to adopt the environmentally friendly solutions by executing sustainable urban development, preparing the documents of spatial planning, planning new streets, bypasses, street reconstructions.