Vol. 6 & Issue 4 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Aug. to Oct.2016

 

Ecological Health Assessment of two Tropical ponds of Sasaram, Bihar with Special Reference to Water Quality and Aquatic Insects

Awadesh Kumar Singh, Indu Kumari and Pramod Kumar

  • Abstract

    Present work has been conducted on two tropical ponds (namely Shershah Suri pond and Moradabad pond) situated in Sasaram city of Bihar to assess its ecological health and trophic status on the basis of water chemistry and insect fauna. Aquatic insects are very significant as indicators of water quality. Total of 49 insect species were recorded from both the ponds during present study. Among all the insect fauna, species belongs to order Coleoptera were recorded their dominance in both the ponds. Physicochemical and biological results of both the ponds show higher trophic conditions on account of anthropogenic pressure. Water chemistry of Shershah Suri pond the ponds reveal degrading condition as compared to Moradabad pond. 

Effect of Temperature on the Sorption of Metals Ions from Aqueous Solution on Lonchoarpus laxiflorus Gill and perr. Leaves

A. H. Santuraki,, B. A. Aliyu , J. T. Barminas, and A.U. Babayo

  • Abstract

    Studies were carried out on sorption of metal ions on an adsorbent made from Lonchoarpus laxiflorus leave. This report is based on the investigation of the effect of temperature on the removal of Cr2+, Cd2+, Fe3+, Ni2+ and Pb2+ in aqueous solution using Lonchoarpus laxiflorus leaves substrate in a batch sorption process. The result showed that the most suitable orption temperature was 40ºC.The thermodynamic parameters such as standards Gibbs free energy, ΔGº, enthalpy, ΔHº, entropy, ΔSº changes was estimated to evaluate the feasibility and nature of the adsorption process which was found favorable. Results revealed that sorption of metal ions on Lonchoarpus laxiflorus leave substrate were exothermic in nature and that lower solution temperatures favors metal ion removal by the sorbent. The findings of this investigation suggest that physical sorption plays a role in controlling the sorption rate.

Spatial distribution of the risk of toxicity by the Trace Elements metal in the sediments of a lagoon environment : case of Sectors II and III of the Ebrié lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire)

IRIE BI T. J. G, WOGNIN A. V., AKA. A. M., KANDO A. M. L., COULIBALY A. S, MONDE S. and AKA K.

  • Abstract

    The assessment of the risk of toxicity in the areas II and III of the lagoon Ebrié has been made with 46 samples of sediment. Copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) have been analyzed by double replica in each sediment. The treatment of the data collecte has allowed to have essential information on the sediments of two sectors studied. The Sector III has strong values of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd that the sector II. The risk of toxicity is of 21% in the sector II. The values of the average quotient vary from 0.22 to 0.5. In the Sector III, the values of the average quotient fluctuate between 0.21 and 1.52. The toxic risk varies from 21% to 76%. In view of these results, measures of protection must be taken by the competent authorities for a sustainable management of this lagoon environments.

    Résumé : L’évaluation du risque de toxicité dans les secteurs II et III de la lagune Ebrié a été faite avec 46 échantillons de sédiments. Le cuivre (Cu), le nickel (Ni), le zinc (Zn), le cadmium (Cd) et le plomb (Pb) ont été analysés en double réplique dans chaque sédiment. Le traitement des données recueillies a permis d’avoir des informations essentielles sur les sédiments des deux secteurs étudiés. Le secteur III a de fortes valeurs de Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb et Cd que le secteur II.
    Le risque de toxicité est de 21 % dans le secteur II. Les valeurs du quotient moyen varient de 0,22 à 0,5. Dans le secteur III, les valeurs du quotient moyen fluctuent entre 0,21 et 1,52. Le risque toxique varie de 21 % à 76 %. Au vue de ces résultats, des mesures de protection doivent être prises par les autorités compétentes pour une gestion durable de ce milieu lagunaire

Assessment of Heavy Metals Accumulation in Washed and Unwashed Leafy Vegetables Sector-26 Vashi, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra.

R.D.Mohite N. Basavaiah, P.U. Singare, A.V.R. Reddy, R.K.Singhal, U. Blaha

  • Abstract

    The accumulation of Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn in vegetables near to industrial area sector-26 Vashi Navi Mumbai were investigated using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy(XRF).The four leafy vegetables washed and unwashed studied include Kardai(Carthamustinctorius L.),Red Mat(Amaranthus dubius), Spinach(Spinaciaoleracea L), Mayalu(Basellaalba.L). The metal concentrations in the unwashed vegetables was high as compare to washed vegetable sample which suggests anthropogenic sources contamination. The levels of Pb, Fe, Cr was observed above the WHO-ML in both washed and unwashed samples. Elevated concentrations of heavy metals were recorded in washed and unwashed sample. The results revealed that heavy metal values in the washed sample ranged from 3.35 mg kg-1- 4.7 mg kg-1(Pb), 12.5 mg kg-1-17.9 mg kg-1(Cu), 52.1 mg kg-1- 65.9 9 mg kg-1 (Zn), 391 mg kg-1-737.6 mg kg-1(Fe), 1.0 mg kg-1-5.9 mg kg-1 (Cr),6.5 mg kg-1 -7.9 mg kg-1 (Ni), 67.3 mg kg-1- 276.2 mg kg-1 (Mn) while those of unwashed were found to be 4.4 mg kg-1-6.8 mg kg-1 (Pb), 15.8 mg kg-1- 20.0 mg kg-1(Cu), 66.0 mg kg-1- 75.8 mg kg-1 (Zn), 1893.0 mg kg-1- 2049.0 mg kg-1 (Fe), 9.0 mg kg-1-23.8 mg kg-1 (Cr), 8.0 mg kg-1- 10.4 mg kg-1(Ni), 92.3 mg kg-1- 337.2 mg kg-1(Mn).The levels of Cu,Zn,Ni, Mn in washed and unwashed vegetable samples were below the WHO-ML.

Challenges in Growing African Leafy Vegetables for Enhanced Household Food Security in Western Kenya

Cheserek Grace Jerotich

  • Abstract

    African leafy vegetables are commonly used by households in western Kenya on regular basis as a source of vitamins accompanied by our precious starch Ugali (corn cake). Vegetables are mainly used by peasant families who cannot afford some protein in form of milk, meat, fish or chicken. The study aimed to identify the main challenges faced by farmer who grow ALVs for household food security and how these can be solved to enhance income and food. The target population were 120 households who grew ALVs in Eldoret and parts of western Kenya. The findings shows 70% of ALV growers are female while 30% were male; majority with primary education (63%). Their main source of income is farming 89% and the land under ALV is quarter of an acre 87%. The commonly grown ALV is Nightshade 47.5% whereas respondents who grew all three are 33%. The reason is nightshade is the most purchased in market compared to Amaranth and Spider plant. Most 66% income generated from ALVs is used to purchase food and other household goods. The main challenges faced by farmers are: seed quality, pest control, post-harvest technology, packaging and value addition. The proposed solutions are farmers forming groups for disseminating information on markets access and access to financial services for packaging and value addition. The study recommends knowledge sharing between ALV growers and consumers on the nutritional values and immunity boost for all household members in Kenya.

Selenium Contents of Selected Nuts and Seeds, Spices and Soils in Central Nigeria

Zarmai Saidu , Ishaq S. Eneji, Terrumun A. Tor-Anyiin and Rufus Sha’Ato

  • Abstract

    Selected common staple nuts and seeds (cashew, palm kernel and sesame), spices (alligator pepper and ginger) and soils were analyzed for selenium contents using Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (HG–AAS) techniques. Results from duplicate analysis showed that cashew nuts had the highest mean selenium content (113±22 μg/kg), followed by soil (89.9± 19.9 μg/kg), palm kernel nuts (85.8±16 μg/kg), sesame seeds (85.6±21 μg/kg), then alligator pepper (53.3±11 μg/kg) and ginger (25.9±7.4 μg/kg). The variations in Se could be as a result of type’s species variety and bioavailability from the soil. Owing to the importance of Se to human health it is recommended that cashew nuts should be consumed much more than sesame seeds and spices as food additives.

Heavy Metals Contamination and Physicochemical Characteristics of Soils from Waste Dumpsites in a Military Formation in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

Raymond C. Nwankwo , Ishaq S. Eneji, Lami A. Nnamonu and Rufus Sha’Ato

  • Abstract

    Waste dump soil samples from military formation within Makurdi metropolis were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics and total metal concentrations in dry season. The pH values of the soils in all the sites ranged from 5.42±0.01 to 6.22±0.01 showing that the soils were moderately acidic. The electrical conductivities of the soils ranged from 43.0±1.70 to 649±.26.5 μScm-1 indicating significant presence of soluble inorganic salts with their corresponding ions. The values of cation exchange capacity (cmol/kg) ranged from 2.57±0.07 to 7.70±0.07 signifying limited presence of degradable substances and microbial activities in the soil. The Phosphorous content ranged from 0.83±0.07 to 3.89±0.08% which may be attributed to the presence of some organic matters. The total metal concentration levels (mg/kg) for as ranged from 6.34±0.02 to 17.7±0.12; Cd: 4.03±0.06 to 13.7±0.12; Cr: 6.33±0.04 to 15.5±0.05; Zn: 34.8± 0.00 to 84.6±0.02 for the soil samples. The relative abundance of these toxic metals in the sampled soils are as follows Zn>As>Cr>Cd. Accordingly, the contamination Index values revealed that the soils were slightly contaminated by heavy metals and proactive steps should be taken by relevant agencies to minimize accumulation of these metals in the soils.

Challenges and Opportunities in Implementation of Involuntary Resettlement Action Plan, Eastern Electricity Highway Project, Kenya

Cheserek Grace Jerotich

  • Abstract

    Involuntary resettlement occurs in situations where a government intends to develop large scale projects that benefit the larger community but affects part of the community where the project will be implemented. In this paper we will discuss the challenges and opportunities arising from an electricity transmission line undertaken by the Kenyan and Ethiopian governments to increase the area covered by electricity and promote development. The main objective was to audit the resettlement action plan prepared by Kenya electricity generating company with integrated compensation plan for project affected persons and project displaced persons. The finding showed the compensation process achieved 70% in structures, 30% on land and 10% on livelihoods enhancement. The challenges include: lack of clear information in utilization of cash, resettlement of PDPs and vulnerable groups. Gender equity, female headed, child headed and elderly are affected negatively whereas the younger families benefited immensely because they identified income generating activities. The opportunity lies in improved housing structures, enhanced livelihoods and better living standards. The study recommends development of clear communication strategy, involving all stakeholders, reducing time taken between evaluation and release of compensation for structures where possible 100% for PDPs. Counselling on money management is crucial especially among the young people below the age of 35 years to reduce misuse of compensation cash.

Physicochemical Analysis of Ground Water of Jodhpur District Areas Having Excess of Fluoride & Nitrate.

Pallavi Mishra, Shipra Singh and Rajshri Soni.

  • Abstract

    A detailed analysis of water samples of the desert areas of western Rajasthan has been presented. The data on physico-chemical characteristics of about 100 ground water samples of thirty sites indicate that according to international standards of drinking water as devised by W.H.O. 10% water in western Rajasthan conforms to permissible limits (TDS < 500 mg/l ) and are suitable for drinking considering 2000 mg/l TDS as maximum permissible level , 50% of available waters in the western Rajasthan are potable. About 40% of water has electrical conductivity less than 2300 micro-mhos/cm. In Jodhpur district of Rajasthan salinity & toxicological studies of waters, effects of excessive fluoride & nitrate, their mitigation measures are also discussed. A tentative correlation between prevailing water-borne diseases and excessive fluoride, nitrate, dissolved solids in the water of Jodhpur district areas has also been shown.

Adsorption of Cobalt (II) and Nickel (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution on Chitosan

N.S. Rajurkar and Dipali Mahajan

  • Abstract

    Chitosan was used as an adsorbent for removal of Co (II) and Ni (II) ions from aqueous solutions. The various parameters viz., pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, particle size and concentration were optimized to get effective removal of metal ions. Adsorption process revealed that the maximum removal (97.35%) of cobalt ions (0.1M) was observed at pH 3, contact time 60 min, adsorbent dosage 0.5 g and particle size105μm and the maximum removal (95.42%) of nickel ions (0.1M) was observed at pH 5, contact time 90 min, adsorbent dosage 0.5 g and particle size105μm. The thermodynamic of adsorption of these metal ions on chitosan indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The adsorption process followed Freundlich, Temkin and D-R isotherms and obeys pseudo 1st order kinetics as well as intra particle diffusion model. Adsorbed metal ions can be effectively recovered using 0.1M NaOH as an eluent. Present study indicates that chitosan can act as a promising adsorbent for waste water treatment containing Co (II) and Ni (II) ions.

Mapping of morphological facies of the funds of a Lagoon estuarine (closed) Inshore: the Lagoon Ouladine to Grand-Bassam (Côte d'Ivoire)

Bi Kassia Francis KOFFI , AKA Charles Alberic, WANGO Ted-Edgard, Monde Sylvain, Digbéi Zeli Bruno, AKA Kouamé.

  • Abstract

    The objective of this study is to determine the morphological characteristics of the estuarine complex Ouladine lagoon - Comoé River on the Ivorian Coast in Grand-Bassam (Ivory Coast, West Africa) to end to identify the mechanisms that take place there. Data’s quests on the study area enabled to reveal, in regard to morphology, certain heterogeneity of funds. The bedlagoon varied from 0 to 13.71 meters with an average of 6.86 meters. These depths are the result of year erosion of this section caused by turbulent waters during the flood of Comoé River. The average depths of 2.5 to 5 meters are located in the western zone of the lagoon. The shallow depths are located after the island of Azuretti until the neighborhood bridge of France area, where a depression area is observed up to 7.2 meters. Since the closure of the estuary, this section parallel to the coastline to the mouth closed, acts as a receptacle. On the whole surface of the lagoon we watch two channels perpendicular asymmetrical, one of west-east direction and the other north-south direction which are dotted with depressions and shallow. Radial from's study, we observed the facies equivalent to wet or type "V" profile, type profiles "U", and intermediate-type profiles.

Study and Monitoring of Hydrological Parameters of Surface flow in a Coastal Watershed: Case Watershed Nyanga in Republic of Congo

Médard NGOUALA MABONZO, Urbain Gampio MBILOU, Barthèle KOUA BITA et Marie Joseph SAMBA- KIMBATA

  • Abstract

    The study of surface runoff in the watershed of Nyanga in the southwest of the Republic of Congo, which involved the analysis and interpretation of hydrological aspects such as rates, water availability and water regime revealed after reviewing the parameters such as the average module, the coefficient of seasonal variation and the correlation coefficient, that throughout this basin, flows are directly influenced by precipitation. The floods are sudden and prodigious low flows giving rise at rates eclipsing: more it rains, more the water level rises and flows are important. The relationship between rainfall and flow rates is satisfactory because the high value of the correlation coefficient obtained (0.93) confirms this analysis. The hydrological regime is irregular, and the ratio between the extreme flow is low (2.3).This suggests that the surrounding populations are not threatened flooding in this hydrological basin of Nyanga despite its surprising floods.

Wastewater treatment using Spirulina platensis

Somayeh Dolatabadi and Seyyed Abolfazl Hosseini

  • Abstract

    In this study, we examine the impact of Spirulina platensis growth on water treatment and its softening. TDS (total dissolved solids) was tested by gravimetric method. BOD (biological oxygen demand) was performed to measure the organic compound in water by Wrinkler’s method. COD (chemical oxygen demand) was performed using potassium dichromate as a strong oxidative agent. Results have shown 50% improvement in reducing TDS, 82% for BOD5, 50% in case of COD, and 72% in terms of total hardness. The process of biosorption of organic and inorganic compounds in hard water by blue–green algae Spirulina platensis is discussed in this paper. Spirulina sp. was found to be a very efficient biosorbent

An assessment of fluoride level in the ground water in two district Lucknow & Unnao of Central Uttar Pradesh, India

Anamika Srivastava Minaxi Lohani and D.D Upreti

  • Abstract

    The alluvial soil and Gomti basin, parts of Lucknow and Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh show presence of inorganic constituent Viz, Fluoride varying from 0.2 mg/litre to 4.0 mg/litre (ppm) in older Alluvial Soil (ultisol) and Newer Alluvial Soil (Inceptisols). The study is leased on water samples collected from 35 locations in an around of Lucknow and Unnao. The present study focused on quality of ground water in rural and urban areas. The assessment reveals that although the fluoride is present in fewer amounts but its role is significant as far as the environmental issues are concerned.

Tomography of Pedologic Systems: Case Study of the Obala-Nkolessong Road Stretch

Mbia Jeannot Thomas , Mbida Yem, Medjo Eko Robert , Abossolo Monique, Yene Atangana Joseph Quentin, Ekodeck Georges Emmanuel, Koah Na Lebogo Serge Parfait

  • Abstract

    In the plain and highland areas of thick soil and vegetation cover, the additional costs generated by the lack of precision of topographic and geotechnical input data in the field of road construction sometimes reaches 50%. This is the case of the construction of the Obala-Nkolessong road corridor which excavation works were delayed on about 30 km because of the appearance of unknown geohazards and the deficiency of the preliminary geotechnical project design. This article presents the results of electrical tomography measurements collected through land entries of residual geohazard zones recognized on the aforementioned section. The objective was to gather data which can be used as basic information for geophysical and geotechnical recognition studies in environments similar to the study area.

Excessive usage of Non Renewable Energy Resources- Its Impact on Global Warming

K. Jhansi Lakshmi , S. Padmavathi, D.Balarama Raju and Ch.V.V .Satyavani

  • Abstract

    Nonrenewable Energy makes up 85% the energy used on earth. Earth minerals, metal ores, fossil fuels (Coal, petroleum, natural gas) and ground water in certain aquifers are all considered nonrenewable energy resources. The use of nonrenewable energy sources mainly burning of fossil fuels increases Greenhouse gas concentrations like water vapour, Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane and ozone in the atmosphere. The increase of greenhouse gas concentration led to substantial warming of earth and the sea called global warming. Increasing global temperatures causes a broad range of changes such as sea level rise, melting of land ice, floods, droughts, heat waves and tornados. There is an abrupt Climate change in the past two decades. Scientists remarked, "the next few decades offer a brief window of opportunity to minimize large scale and potentially catastrophic climate change that will extend longer than the entire history of human civilization thus far. By reducing the use of natural resources, we will benefit the environment in several ways. Decreasing energy and gasoline lower carbon footprint and thus reduce the amount of greenhouse gases.

Excessive usage of Non Renewable Energy Resources- Its Impact on Global Warming

K. Jhansi Lakshmi , S. Padmavathi, D.Balarama Raju and Ch.V.V .Satyavani

  • Abstract

    Nonrenewable Energy makes up 85% the energy used on earth. Earth minerals, metal ores, fossil fuels (Coal, petroleum, natural gas) and ground water in certain aquifers are all considered nonrenewable energy resources. The use of nonrenewable energy sources mainly burning of fossil fuels increases Greenhouse gas concentrations like water vapour, Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane and ozone in the atmosphere. The increase of greenhouse gas concentration led to substantial warming of earth and the sea called global warming. Increasing global temperatures causes a broad range of changes such as sea level rise, melting of land ice, floods, droughts, heat waves and tornados. There is an abrupt Climate change in the past two decades. Scientists remarked, "the next few decades offer a brief window of opportunity to minimize large scale and potentially catastrophic climate change that will extend longer than the entire history of human civilization thus far. By reducing the use of natural resources, we will benefit the environment in several ways. Decreasing energy and gasoline lower carbon footprint and thus reduce the amount of greenhouse gases.

Excessive usage of Non Renewable Energy Resources- Its Impact on Global Warming

K. Jhansi Lakshmi , S. Padmavathi, D.Balarama Raju and Ch.V.V .Satyavani

  • Abstract

    Nonrenewable Energy makes up 85% the energy used on earth. Earth minerals, metal ores, fossil fuels (Coal, petroleum, natural gas) and ground water in certain aquifers are all considered nonrenewable energy resources. The use of nonrenewable energy sources mainly burning of fossil fuels increases Greenhouse gas concentrations like water vapour, Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane and ozone in the atmosphere. The increase of greenhouse gas concentration led to substantial warming of earth and the sea called global warming. Increasing global temperatures causes a broad range of changes such as sea level rise, melting of land ice, floods, droughts, heat waves and tornados. There is an abrupt Climate change in the past two decades. Scientists remarked, "the next few decades offer a brief window of opportunity to minimize large scale and potentially catastrophic climate change that will extend longer than the entire history of human civilization thus far. By reducing the use of natural resources, we will benefit the environment in several ways. Decreasing energy and gasoline lower carbon footprint and thus reduce the amount of greenhouse gases.

Excessive usage of Non Renewable Energy Resources- Its Impact on Global Warming

K. Jhansi Lakshmi , S. Padmavathi, D.Balarama Raju and Ch.V.V .Satyavani

  • Abstract

    Nonrenewable Energy makes up 85% the energy used on earth. Earth minerals, metal ores, fossil fuels (Coal, petroleum, natural gas) and ground water in certain aquifers are all considered nonrenewable energy resources. The use of nonrenewable energy sources mainly burning of fossil fuels increases Greenhouse gas concentrations like water vapour, Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane and ozone in the atmosphere. The increase of greenhouse gas concentration led to substantial warming of earth and the sea called global warming. Increasing global temperatures causes a broad range of changes such as sea level rise, melting of land ice, floods, droughts, heat waves and tornados. There is an abrupt Climate change in the past two decades. Scientists remarked, "the next few decades offer a brief window of opportunity to minimize large scale and potentially catastrophic climate change that will extend longer than the entire history of human civilization thus far. By reducing the use of natural resources, we will benefit the environment in several ways. Decreasing energy and gasoline lower carbon footprint and thus reduce the amount of greenhouse gases.

Seasonal and Annual Trends in PM2.5 and PM10 Mass Concentrations and Air Quality Index of Agra: A Five Year Study

Awni Agarwal, Nidhi Verma, Rajneesh Kumar Meena, Aparna Satsangi, Anita Lakhani, K. Maharaj Kumari

  • Abstract

    This study was conducted at a suburban site in Agra for a period of five years (March 2011-December 2015) excluding 2013. PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations and their relationship with meteorological parameters were investigated to study the overall trends in air quality. During the study period the mean mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were 93.8±58.2 μg/m3 and 170.5±104.0 μg/m3, respectively, which were well above the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of India. Lowest concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 were confined to the monsoon season while the winter season exhibited increased levels probably due to the prevailing meteorology and activities in this region. PM2.5/PM10 ratios showed an average value of 0.51 (range; 0.13-0.89) indicating that ~51% of PM10 mass was composed of PM2.5 particles. Seasonal ratios for the summer and winter period suggest that PM2.5 and PM10 particles originate from different sources. Statistical analysis using the correlation method between particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and meteorological variables like temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and wind speed (WS) was performed to study their impact on PM mass concentrations. Strong negative correlations were obtained for both PM2.5 and PM10 with temperature and wind speed while correlations with RH were usually positive and less significant. Based on the Air Quality Index (AQI) analysis, it may be concluded that the air quality at this site ranges from being moderately polluted in summer to unhealthy for most of the days in post monsoon and winter, while during monsoon air quality is good.

Analytical Studies of Underground Drinking Water of Industrial Part of Sirgitti in Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh)

Renu Nayar  and Rajani Patel

  • Abstract

    The present study was undertaken to determine the physico-chemical properties and heavy metals in drinking water samples collected from two different sources in Sirgitti, Bilaspur (cg). Water samples were transparent, odorless and taste was agreeable. The pH of water samples was more than prescribed level, Dissolved oxygen in water samples was higher than 5 ppm. The Biochemical oxygen demand in water samples was below than 6 ppm, the maximum value of BOD observed was 1.8 mg/l at S-1 in May 2016. Alkalinity in water samples were above 120 ppm. During the present study the maximum value of alkalinity was found to be 380 ppm at S-2 in May 2016. The maximum value of total dissolved solids was found to be 761 mg/l at S-2 in May 2016. Maximum value of COD was observed as 98 mg/l at S-1 during the month of May 2016 and minimum value was 45 mg/l at S-2 in the months of February 2016. COD values observed were many times higher than the maximum permissible value, i.e. 10.0 mg/l. Maximum fluoride was recorded to be 1.6 mg/l in the month of May 2016 at station S-1. This is higher than the permissible limit recommended by Indian Standards. Both the sampling station nitrate concentration was always higher the permissible limit of 10 mg/l. It is necessary that the quality of drinking water should be checked at regular time interval, because due to use of contaminated drinking water, human population suffers from varied of water born diseases.

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