Vol. 7 & Issue 1 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Nov.2016 to Jan.2017

 

Physical and Microbiological Characters of Kitchen and Garden Compost

Omm-e-Hany, Asia Neelam, Abdul Jabbar, Fayyaz Salih Hussain and Murad Qadir

  • Abstract

    The most concern environmental issues now a day are the disposal of solid waste. It has given rise to many environmental problems. This paper shows that composting is fundamentally a microbiological event that highly depends on temperature, moisture content, pH and oxygen. All these parameter maintained at their optimal value. The study was conducted on food, garden and yard waste. All the samples were collected manually. In this paper the purpose of study of composting is to outline the controlled process of biological maturity under aerobic conditions where the organic matter undergoes the decomposition to the material with small molecular chains, more stable, hygienic, humus rich and ultimately advantageous for the agriculture crops and for re-cycling of organic matter.

Repercussions of climate change on human health in Pakistan: A Mini Review

Asia Neelam,Tariq Masood Ali Khan,Omm-e-Hany,Fayyaz Salih Hussain, Kinza Abid and Faisal Ahmed Khan

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    In the context of this paper, we estimate the potential health repercussions in the premises of Pakistan. Frequent episodes of extreme weather events in Pakistan, like, flooding, droughts, storms and abrupt change in temperature may directly and indirectly influence the public health in terms of physical injuries, mental stress or infectious diseases. In the country, like Pakistan malaria is usually an episode after monsoon. In Pakistan the recent condition of vector born disease is quite alarming, the climatic factors like temperature plays important role in the episodes of seasonal and epidemics events of disease. Floods and droughts that may occur more frequently in the context of Pakistan have also a lethal impact on public health. The most recent situation was reported in the Thar a lot of deaths occur due to the droughts.

Ground Water Quality Assessment near Municipal Solid Waste Dump Site- a Case Study

Manoj Kumar Mishra, Surendra Prasad, A. M. Jha

  • Abstract

    Inadequate and improper management of municipal solid waste disposal site pose serious environmental threats to their surrounding and near by resident due to groundwater contamination, pollution problems and health risks. The present investigation was carried out to assess the groundwater contamination due to dumping of waste at landfill site in a small town of North Bihar. Water sample from hand pumps were collected during pre monsoon and post monsoon seasons from Jan to April, 2015 and September to December 2015 and were analyzed for the water quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, hardness, total dissolve solid (TDS), sulphate and nitrate. The results showed that water samples of many hand pumps were contaminated. Therefore, this landfill is a threat for environment as well as for the local people and the local authority must pay their attention to prevent further contamination of groundwater in this area.

Hotspots and Climate Change Assessment in Iraq

A.M. Mustafa

  • Abstract

    In this work, the hot spots were investigated depending on the definition of the Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI) which combines changes in the mean seasonal and annual temperature and precipitation with changes in their internal variability. The assessment of climate changes over Iraq by 2040 based on the Regional climate Model (RegCM-V4) the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP (8.5) scenarios which designed by International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP). The analyses between the interval 2010–2040 show that (17 %) of the selected stations considered will be likely (more than 83% probability) to face moderate to pronounced climate changes when compared to the magnitudes of change during the past decades. Relatively modest RCCI signals are expected over mid and southern areas of Iraq with considerable uncertainties. The RCCI-based assessment can help policy-makers against a quantitative and comprehensive overview of climatic risk distribution in the near future.

Contribution of Carbonaceous Species in SOA Formation during Fog and Non-Fog Period

Pallavi Saxena and Umesh Chandra Kulshrestha

  • Abstract

    The present study focuses upon the role of carbonaceous species in the formation of SOA in relation with the varying meteorological and chemical characteristics of ambient air during foggy and non-foggy days. The study was conducted at five sites in Delhi city during 2014-15. Site selection was based on surrounding activities i.e. dense vegetative (Site I), near airport area (Site II), traffic intersection (Site III), residential (Site IV) and industrial (Site V). The highest concentration of OC was recorded at Site I during foggy as well as non-foggy period which can be attributed to biogenic and biomass burning emissions from the dense vegetative area. SOA was found to be high during foggy period at all the sites which was probably due to the triggering role of aqueous phase chemistry present in fog drops responsible for SOA production. High OC/EC ratios (>2) were found during both foggy as well as non-foggy days indicating higher rate of SOA formation. Site II and IV also had relatively higher OC/EC ratios as compared to other sites during foggy days which might be due to its proximity to airport area where congested air traffic is surrounded while Site IV is a residential site surrounded by market places having the influence of biomass and coal burning emissions which could contribute higher concentration of OC. In addition, based on K+ as tracer, evidence of biomass burning and biomass burning is a good source for SOA formation which was noticed during foggy period. K+ concentrations were found to be higher during foggy days as compared to non-foggy days. It was noticed that apart from SOA production, fog also has a role in cleaning the atmosphere of carbonaceous aerosols. Interestingly, inspite of lower mixing heights, EC values were observed significantly lower on foggy days indicating that EC is effectively scavenged by fog.

An Outlook of Vermicomposting and its Scope in Future

Abul Kalam and  Syed Rehan Ahmad

  • Abstract

    Vermicompost is the item or procedure of fertilizing the soil utilizing different worms, typically red wigglers, white worms, and different night crawlers, to make a heterogeneous blend of disintegrating vegetable or nourishment squander, bedding materials, and vermicast, additionally called worm castings, worm humus or worm fertilizer, is the finished result of the breakdown of natural matter by an earthworm. These castings have been appeared to contain lessened levels of contaminants and a higher immersion of supplements than do natural materials before vermicomposting. Containing water-dissolvable supplements, vermicompost is an amazing, supplement rich natural compost and soil conditioner. This procedure of delivering vermicompost is called vermicomposting. The present article deal with An Outlook of Vermicomposting and its scope in future.

Assessment of Organochlorine and Organophosphorous Pesticides Residues in Gomti River Water at Uttar Pradesh, India

Hafizurrahman, Abrar Ahmad and ZulfiqarAli

  • Abstract

    Gomti River is one of the many transcendental Rivers in India which flows through various district of Uttar Pradesh and finally merged with Ganga River at Jaunpur. A massive amount of untreated sewage, industrial pollutant, pesticides, heavy metals and agricultural runoff are discharged in Gomti River. Different pesticides found in water are bringing various neuronal health problems to the human being and ecosystem damage in the River. This study reports the concentration levels and distribution patterns of the 12 organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in the surface water of Gomti River in Uttar Pradesh-India by GC-ECD analysis. Surface water sampling campaigns were carried out during winter, summer and monsoon periods covering 4 stations. There was a variation of pesticides residue levels with season. The commonly found OCP (organo chlorine pesticide) residues in the study area were α-HCH, β-HCH, ϒ-HCH, α-Endosulfan, β-Endosulfan, Aldrin, Dieldrin, p, p̕-DDD, p, p̕-DDE, p, p̕-DDT, Methyl parathion and Heptachlor. Concentration of Aldrin (0.058 to 0.568μg/l), Dieldrin (0.042 to 0.407μg/l), Heptachlor (0.032 to 0.265μg/l), α-Endosulfan (0.042 to 0.42μg/l), α-, HCH (0.013to 0.162 μg/l), β-HCH (0.050 to 0.452 μg/l) were found to be higher than the acceptable limit of BIS value. Methyl parathions were detected only in three samples in trace amount. Results obtained can be helpful in better designing of cleaning and maintaining of River Gomti as per River Action plan. We need to avoid making water contaminated by pesticide.

Concentrations of some heavy metals in two species of vegetable grown in Gokana metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria

Kpee, F. and Marcus, A.C.

  • Abstract

    Levels of heavy metals: As, Mn, Pb, Cd and Fe were examined in topsoil and two species of vegetables, okro (Albelmuscus esculentus) and garden eggs (Solanum melongena) from five locations of Gokana metropolis in Rivers State, Nigeria. The samples were digested with a 3:1 mixture of mineral acids, HCl and HNO3 and were analyzed with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer AAS model 54-71096. The results of detectable concentrations (mg/kg) of heavy metals were in the following ranges: The top soil gave As (1.65-3.4), Mn (4275-625.5), Pb (2.8-12.63), Cd (0.00-0.16), and Fe (1452-2085), while the two species of vegetable afforded As (0.7-1.8), Mn (104.7-241), Pb (2.8-5.6), Cd (<0.001-12), and Fe (173-384). Fe, on the whole, had the highest concentration of the heavy metals while the lowest was obtained for Cd. The distribution trend for the heavy metals in the three samples was of the order: Fe>Mn>Pb>As>Cd. Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and contamination factor (Cf) revealed that the topsoil and the two species of vegetables may have been contaminated with all the heavy metals. This portends health risk for consumers of okro, garden eggs and other farm produce with respect to the heavy metals examined in the studied area.

Impact of Anthropogenic Pressure on the Water Quality of Anchar Lake in Kashmir

Muzamil Bashir, Rajendra chauhan, Mohammad Farooq Mir, Mohd Ashraf, Nasrul Amin

  • Abstract

    A detailed limnological study of the Anchar Lake in Kashmir was conducted during March2015 to March 2016. Five study sites were selected for the collection of samples. The ionic composition of water of the Anchar Lake varied in close relationship with the catchment pattern of the concerned water body. The Anchar Lake receiving all sorts of allochthonus material from the catchment had the highest conductivity. The water of the Lake was well buffered with pH > 7. The ionic composition of water from the streams varied in close relationship with the catchment pattern of the concerned water body.The water of the lake was found to be medium hard type (Mean hardness= 93.7±mg/l) and on the other side the hardness was much more (Mean hardness 150±mg/l), it is because due to huge entry of significant quantities of nutrients rich surface runoff from human habitation.

Sorption Kinetics for the Removal of Methyl Violet Dye From Waste Water Using African Nutmeg as Biomass

A.K. Asiagwu, B O. Peretomo-Clarke and M. A. Okposo

  • Abstract

    This work presents the kinetic model for the sorption of methyl violet dye by African nutmeg (monodora myristica) shells. The effects of various experimental parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, temperature and dye ion concentration were evaluated. From the analysis, the amount of dye adsorbed increased from 1.41mg/L to 1.97mg/L with increase in contact time ranging from 20 to 100 minutes. Adsorption also increased from 1.30mg/L to 1.70mg/L with increase in adsorbent dosage from 2 to 6g. It was also observed that increase in concentration from 10 to 50mg/L lead to increase in amount of dye adsorbed. Also, increase in pH from 2 to 10 lead to increase in amount of dye adsorbed from 0.74mg/L to 2.35mg/L. While in the effect of temperature, the amount of dye adsorbed decreased from 2.53mg/L to 2.18mg/L with increase in temperature from 300C to 700C. There was an increase in the percentage of dye removed in the effects of temperature and concentration, while contact time, pH and adsorbent dosage, reverse was the case. The R2 values for the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were 0.600 and 0.920 respectively, indicating that the Freundlich isotherm has a better relationship and is more suitable for describing the process. The pseudo-first and pseudo-second order kinetics were used to analyze the data and it was found that they had R2 values of 0.766 and 1 respectively. By implication, the pseudo-second order model fit into it because of its R2 value. The Pseudo-second order agrees with the sorption process.

Study of Physico-Chemical Properties to Evaluate the Water Quality of River Narmada, Hoshangabad (M.P.)

Priyanka Upadhyay, Vipin Vyas, Kamlesh Borana

  • Abstract

    The aim of present study was to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of river Narmada. For the present investigation, eight sampling stations were selected at different locations of Hoshangabad. A total of 10 parameters were monitored from a period of September, 2014 to February, 2016 such as pH, TDS, TSS, TS, DO, BOD, Nitrate, Phosphate, Chloride and Turbidity. It observed that pH ranged between 6.8 to 8.8, TS between 45 mgl-1 to 710 mgl-1, DS between 37 mgl-1 to 650 mgl-1, SS between 3 mgl-1 to 217 mgl-1, Biological oxygen demand between 0.2 mgl-1 to 4.9 mgl-1, Dissolved oxygen between 5.1 mgl-1 to 12.1 mgl-1, Nitrate between 0.01 mgl-1 to 5.85 mgl-1, Phosphate between 0 mgl-1 to 1.2 mgl-1 , Chloride between 1.2 mgl-1 to 27 mgl-1 and Turbidity between 2 NTU to 47 NTU. The water quality of river Narmada was placed under the class A to C as per BIS 2296 [1982]. The water can be also used for domestic purpose after treatment and disinfection.

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from River Jhelum of Kashmir Valley, India

Mohammad Aneesul Mehmood, Shafiq-ur-Rehman, Sartaj Ahmad Ganie,Asmat Rashid, Rouf Ahmad Bhat

  • Abstract

    The concentration of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Mo, Mn, Fe, Zn, Co, B and Pb) were measured in surface sediments of river Jhelum, Kashmir, India. Six sampling sites were selected in three discrete regions of Jhelum River and the samples were collected on seasonal basis. Concentration of heavy metals in sediments were found to increase from upstream to downstream but at Qamarwari site of middle stream showed elevated levels in all seasons mainly due to the inputs from commercial and industrial activities in and around Srinagar city. Seasonal effect on the distribution of heavy metals has also been recorded and in summer season, the heavy metals were found to be elevated concentrations as compared to other seasons mainly due to the intensive commercial and agricultural practices in the catchment area of river Jhelum. Among heavy metals, Zn, Cu and Fe were recorded more in sediment fallowed by Mo, Pb, Cd, Mn and Ni. The extent of pollution by heavy metals in the river Jhelum implies that the condition can be alarming to the biota and inhabitants in near future, if steps not taken to control the pollution in the catchment area of river Jhelum.

Characterization of Surface Water - Groundwater in the Lower Precambrian Aquifer of the Loémé Watershed in the Republic of Congo

Tchoumou Martin ; Mbilou Urbain Gampio ; Ngouala Mabonzo Médard ; Samba-Kimbata Marie Joseph.

  • Abstract

    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to characterize the waters of the Loémé watershed. The methods used were field and laboratory. PH, temperature and conductivity were measured with hand-held devices in the field, while chemical analyzes were carried out in the laboratory using Photometer 7000 and tablet reagents. The chemical analyzes were treated by hydrochemical and statistical methods (principal component analysis). The parameters of the water balance (rainfall, infiltration, evapotranspiration and runoff) were used for an approximate assessment of groundwater supply. The evolution curves of the piezometric levels showed two tendencies: the recharge and the discharge of the water table.
    The spatial distribution of major ions (chloride, sodium, sulphates, magnesium, calcium, nitrate, potassium, and hydrocarbonate) in this watershed shows peaks at the ends and at the center with decreases between Pics. It appears that the waters of this zone are characterized by low levels of ions. This shows the importance of the supply of surface water by the aquifer and the contribution of the different geological formations crossed by these waters. The mineralization of water is mainly governed by the phenomena of flow, dissolution and precipitation of minerals such as calcite, dolomite, anhydrite, gypsum and halite. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicates that the variables controlling water salinization (Cl-, HCO3-, NO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+ the Pipper diagram shows the existence of three groups of water: chloride and sulphate calcium and magnesium, chloride (nitrate) sodium and potassium or sulphate sodium, bicarbonate calcium and magnesium.

    Résumé : L'objectif de cette étude est de caractériser les eaux du bassin versant de la Loémé. Les méthodes utilisées ont été terrain et en laboratoire. Le PH, la température et la conductivité ont été mesurées avec des appareils portatifs sur le terrain, tandis que les analyses chimiques ont été effectuées au laboratoire à l'aide de réactifs photomètre 7000 et tablette. Les analyses chimiques ont été traitées par des méthodes statistiques et hydrochimiques (analyse en composantes principales). Les paramètres de l'équilibre de l'eau (pluie, infiltration, évapotranspiration et ruissellement) ont été utilisées pour une évaluation approximative de l'approvisionnement en eau souterraine. L'évolution des courbes du niveau piézométrique montre deux tendances : l'alimentation et l'exercice de la nappe phréatique.
    La distribution spatiale des ions majeurs (chloride, sodium, sulfates, magnésium, calcium, nitrate, potassium, et hydrocarbonate) dans ce bassin versant présente des pics à l'extrémité et au centre avec les diminutions entre les pics. Il semble que les eaux de cette zone sont caractérisées par de faibles niveaux d'ions. Cela montre l'importance de l'alimentation des eaux de surface par l'aquifère et la contribution des différentes formations géologiques traversées par ces eaux. La minéralisation de l'eau est principalement régi par les phénomènes d'écoulement, la dissolution et précipitation de minéraux tels que la calcite, dolomite, d'anhydrite, de gypse et de halite. Analyse en composantes principales (ACP) indique que les variables contrôlant la salinisation de l'eau (Cl-, HCO3-, NO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+ , Na , et k le Pipper diagramme montre l'existence de trois groupes de l'eau : les chlorures et sulfates de calcium et magnésium, chlorure (nitrates) ou de sulfate de sodium et de potassium, bicarbonate de sodium, calcium et magnésium.

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