Vol. 7 & Issue 2 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : Feb. to April 2017

 

Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Tailings from Gango Gold Mine

Antonio Y. Asoy , Ronnie L. Besagas , Romeo M. Del Rosario and Noel T. Dael 

  • Abstract

    The physico-chemical characteristics of the Gango gold mine tailings and the economic feasibility of reprocessing it was investigated. Characterization was made in two categories of tailings: the surface tailings and the 1m deep tailings. The results showed that both surface and 1m deep tailings are alkaline at pH 9.80 and 8.98, respectively. Ignition at 500˚C resulted in a minimal loss of weight for both surface and 1m deep tailings implying that the tailings contain only a traced amount of volatile substances. The sulfur content of the tailings is at the average of 2.03%. The presence of sulfur may trigger a harmful environmental condition called acid mine drainage. Substantial amount of Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Co, Pb, Ag, and Au were assayed in the Gango gold mine tailings. In terms of the economic aspect, the tailings contain substantial amount of gold (7.38 g Au/t) with significant economic value. It is estimated that the tailings pond at Gango Gold Mine contains more than 945 kg of gold. Reprocessing of Gango gold mine tailings to recover the precious gold metal is highly viable.

Validation of Analytical Methodology for Pesticide Residue Analysis in Fruit Juices by Using Solid Phase Extraction

Sailendra Kumar, D.B.S. Chauhan, Vikesh Kumar

  • Abstract

    Solid phase extraction method in combination with Gas Chromatography – Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) was used for the extraction and quantification of aldrin, butachlor, chlordane, dicofol, and alpha endosulfan pesticides. The results showed higher responses of the pesticides after addition of aliquots of water and an organic solvent to the fruit samples. The extracting solvent consisting of a mixture of methanol/acetonitrile (1:1) when added to the sample in the proportion of 2% volume / weight (v/w) showed the best recovery, resulting in more than 80% recovery of the pesticides for all the investigated fruit samples. Relative standard deviations (RSD) for triplicate analyses of samples were less than 10%.Solid phase extraction techniques has been shown to be a simple extraction technique, which has a number of advantages such as, simplicity and capability with the chromatographic analytical system.

A Preliminary Study of Bacterial Flora of water of Gulmarg wildlife sanctuary

Nighat Gani and Azra N Kamili 

  • Abstract

    This research work determined the microbiological characteristics of waters of Gulmarg wildlife sanctuary, Kashmir. Bacteria are so widespread that it is possible only to make the most general statements about their life history and ecology. They May be found on the tops of mountains, the bottom of the deepest oceans, in the guts of animals and even in the frozen rocks and ice of Antarctica. One feature that has enabled them to spread so far, and last so long is their ability to go dormant for an extended period. During the study the bacterial flora showed variation in relation to the conditions prevailing at the different sites. This study was carried out during the year 2012.This paper evaluates that the colony count was highest in summer months and lowest in winter months. This variation may be attributed to favorable conditions during the summer period. The total bacterial population was highest at site IV (200) in the month of July. Similar trend was followed by other sites.

The prediction of impact on Eighteen mile Swamp and Brown Lake due to ground water extraction and sand mining in North Stradebroke Island, Australia

M. Mazbah Uddin

  • Abstract

    The freshwater ecosystems are vulnerable due to human induced environmental changes such as sand mining, groundwater extraction and land conversion. Changes of water quality; hydrology and macro invertebrates can offer a greater understanding of the aquatic systems. The Brown Lake is a perched aquifer and no connection to the regional aquifer as a result lake water level mostly depends on rainfall and runoff. Eighteen Mile Swamp is semi perched and connected to the regional groundwater aquifer and gaining water from groundwater. The water quality data demonstrated that the Brown Lake has higher dissolved oxygen, low pH and lower turbidity than the Eighteen mile Swamp and both lakes have the low amount of nutrients show oligotrophic. The macro invertebrates diversity lower in the Eighteen Mile Swamp than Brown Lake and absence of sensitive species show bad water quality for macro invertebrates. The potential impacts on the Brown Lake due to groundwater extractions would be very low risk because of perched aquifer. Eighteen Mile Swamp is dependent on the groundwater discharge to lake but the potential impacts due to groundwater extractions would be low because of high rainfall and groundwater recharge rate. The potential impacts owing to sand mining would be high in Brown Lake because of no outflow from the lake as a result change waterquality very quickly, but in the Eighteen Mile Swamp also has an impact but it would reduce through stream flow from the lake. 

Floristic diversity of graveyards of Rajbari Sador, Rajbari, Bangladesh

Miruna Banu, Sabrina Naz and Shah Md Golam Gousul Azam

  • Abstract

    Graveyard is a vital resource for the floral diversity. An investigation of the floral diversity in the graveyards of Rajbari Sadar, Rajbari, Bangladesh has been carried out from January 2014 to December 2014. The local inhabitants of this area use these plants in several purposes particularly as medicinal plants. In this paper, we present the local name, botanical name, family, voucher number as well as fruiting and flowering time of the plants collected from the graveyards of Rajbari Sadar. A total of 54 species belonging to 33 families, 39 species belonging to 24 families and 30 species belonging to 25 families are reported from West Vabanipur graveyard, South Bhabanipur Graveyard and Sajjankanda Modho Para graveyard, respectively. The data on the plant diversity indicated that the graveyards are one of the richest biodiversity areas in this region. Since it is the first record of the floral diversity of graveyard in this area, it could be helpful for the environmental scientist and policy maker to take the necessary steps regarding the plant conservation.

Smart Technology to detect and inhibit Ethylene gas production in perishable food items

K. Saikruti and Anvitha S Kumar

  • Abstract

    Fruits and vegetables tend to lose their freshness soon if not stored in the right conditions. This is especially true for fruits which have a high respiration rate. In this paper, different methods to prolong their life are explored and a feasible real time solution is proposed.

Analytical Study of Some Physicochemical Properties of Ground Water from El-Obeid (Bano Area) North Kordofan State, Sudan

Adam Ahmed Farah  and Hassan Ahmed Alassam 

  • Abstract

    The study area is situated in the North Kordofan State (NKS), the region is characterized by semi-arid and poor savannah climatic zone, where acute shortages of water are experienced. The study area is covered by the basement complex (Precambrian age) which is overlain by superficial deposits. A study carried out to analyze Physicochemical of Ground Water from Bano Area. Samples were taken from same places in Bano area. Analysis was done using standard methods, the Mean of parameters: The results shows that water pH of all sample showed no remarkable variation from the WHO and SSMO recommended value of all parameters, EC 982.33, (TDS) 368.33, Turbidity 0.32, Hardness 228.33, CO3- 4.33, HCO3- 38.33, SO2-9.75, F-0.06, Cl0.18, NO3- 0.00, Na+ 0.02, K+ 0.00, Ca+2 92.33, Mg+2 51.00, Mn+2 29.64, Fe+2 0.05 and Al+3 37.49 mg/L. are within the permissible limit of WHO and S.S.M.O standards for drinking water.

Defluoridation by Different Modified Zeolite

S. Kumbhat, A. Prakash and M. Khichar

  • Abstract

    The synthetic zeolites were modified with La(III), Ce(IV) and Zr(IV) used as adsorbent for the removal of fluoride in drinking water. The average distribution coefficient, Kd for La(III), Ce(IV) and Zr(IV) modified zeolites were found as 2145, 1693 and 1762 respectively. The effect of time, adsorbent dose and pH on the adsorption of fluoride by modified zeolite was investigated. The data were fitted in Freundlich, Langmuir and BET adsorption isotherms, the data fitted reasonably well in the Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The values of adsorption capacity K and intensity of adsorption 1/n as obtained from the intercepts and slopes of linear log plots were found as 2.25, 18.11 & 17.11 and 1.02, 0.912 &1.04 respectively. The rate of adsorption was found rapid up to 3-5 minutes and then it becomes very slow. It has been observed that the uptake of fluoride on metal ion surface modified zeolites takes place in the entire range of pH (2-10) investigated. The % removal of fluoride increases as the pH of solution increases, reaches a maximum at pH 5.0 + 0.2 and then decreases. It was observed that the pH of solution after adsorption increases, slightly, with all the adsorbents, this may be attributed to the exchange of OH- ions on the adsorbents by F- ions in water.

The characterisation of the abnormal contact Lower Miocene - Upper Campanian north of the flaw of the Lagoons: case of Wells Koute Abadjin (COTE D'IVOIRE)

Affoué Rachel KOUASSI, N’goran jean-paul YAO , Goha René BIE, Jean-claude Koffi N’ZI, Katel Kahou TOE BI , Elysée koré GUEDE, et Bruno Zéli DIGHEHI

  • Abstract

    Palynological and lithological studies were carried out on 25 samples of cuttings provided by two boreholes (Abadjin kouté 1 and Abadjin kouté 2) located north of the lagoon fault in Côte d'Ivoire sedimentary basin. They aim to propose a palynostratigraphic scale of the subsurface and to specify the palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic contexts. Three hundred and thirty-eight (338) palynomorphs were counted, consisting of dinokysts, spores and pollen grains, which revealed a stratigraphic hiatus between Upper Miocene (sandy) and the Upper Campanian (sandy clay). The Campanian microflora consists of assemblage of Senegalinium bicavatumXenascus ceratioides, Manumiella cretacea, as well as spores and pollen grains (Zlivisporis blanensis, Tricolpites sp., Monocolpites marginatus and Ariadnaesporites spinosus). The Lower Miocene was identified by the association composed of Fenestrites spinosus, Polypodiaceoisporites regularis, Verrucatosporites usmensis,  Cingulatisporites pseudocicatricosus, Laevigatosporites ovatus, Deltoidospora minorCyathidites minor, Retitricolporites irregularis and Pachydermites diederixii. The depositional environment during Campanian is inner to outer marine neritic. The Lower Miocene over the unconformity surface, is deltaic deposit. This palynoflora was yield by pteridophyts, ferns, polypodiaceae and bryophyts during Upper Campanian indicating a humid tropical climate. This climate is observed during Lower Miocene, but the presence of grasses and herbs suggests a dry tropical humid climate.

    Résumé: Des études palynologique et lithologique ont été réalisées dans ce travail sur 25 échantillons de déblais issus de deux forages (Abadjin kouté 1 et Abadjin kouté 2) situés au Nord de la faille des lagunes dans le bassin sédimentaire de Côte d'Ivoire. Elles ont pour but de proposer une échelle palynostratigraphique de la subsurface et de préciser les contextes paléoenvironnemental et paléoclimatique. Trois cent trente huit (338) palynomorphes ont été dénombrés et constitués de dinokystes, de spores et de grains de pollen et qui ont révélé un hiatus stratigraphique entre le Miocène inférieur (sableux) et le Campanien supérieur (sablo argileux). La microflore du Campanien se compose d'un assemblage à dinokystes (Senegalinium bicavatum, Xenascus ceratioides, Manumiella cretacea) ainsi que des spores et grains de pollen (Zlivisporis blanensis, Tricolpites sp, Monocolpites marginatus et Ariadnaesporites spinosus). Le Miocène inférieur a été identifié grâce à l'association de sporomorphes composée de Fenestrites spinosus, Polypodiaceoisporites regularis, Verrucatosporites usmensis,Cingulatisporites pseudocicatricosus, Laevigatosporites ovatus, Deltoidospora minor,Cyathidites minor, Retitricolporites irregularis, et Pachydermites diederixii.L’environnement de dépôt au Campanien est marin néritique interne à néritique externe. Au dessus du hiatus stratigraphique, le Miocène inférieur, est de type deltaïque.Cette palynoflore est issue de ptéridophytes, de fougères, de polypodiaceae et de bryophytes au Campanien supérieur indiquant un climat tropical humide. Ce climat persiste au Miocène inférieur, mais la présence des herbes et les graminées traduit un
    climat tropical humide à sec.

Waste water management

Anita Chouwey and Hemlata Raikwar

  • Abstract

    Treatment of waste water in domestic, industrial, agriculture waste water is a generally unseen but expensive process. As the time frame for millennium development goals minds are turning to the past agenda .this is accompanied by realisation that is the focus on drinking water and sanitation without due attention being paid to the end products of water and sanitation provision(i.e. waste water) may have exacerbated some of the water quality problems seen globally.it is increasingly being recognized that the issues of water management and water quality have cross linkges a range of other water and no water issue not least in respect of the water, energy and food nexus .

Pulping and Paper Making Process of Lucena Lucocephala (Subabul)

Anita Chouwey and Hemlata Raikwar

  • Abstract

    Pulp is a lignocellulose fibrous material the first basic step is pulp and paper prepration is pulping this consist of cooking the raw material, usually wood in suitable chemical in the digester under controlled of temperature, presser, and time. The second basic step is pulp purification. Where pulp is subjected to bleaching and purifying agent to render the pulp more suitable for it’s intend use. Pulping process are three principal type (1) mechanical (2) chemical (3) semichemical. Here we are discussing for separation of fibre soda /Kraft pulping process. In this process white liquor (NaoH + Na2S) used for making pulp. Alkaline pulping process for making pulp and paper is better than other because maximum flexibility, short cooking time, pulp can bleach high brightness labels, no pitch problem, high pulp strength. The recovery of spent liquor is relative easy yield of unbleached pulp 45-45%. 19% subabul with additive brightness 27.81%.

Anthropogenic emissions by sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the Industrial Processes and Product Use (IPPU) Sector in Togo

Kokou SABI ; ZIKPO Fo-Mè and AYASSOU Koffi

  • Abstract

    The reasons for climate change, on a scientific basis, are perceived in two ways: natural and anthropogenic causes. The ever-increasing threat of climate change has not left the international community indifferent. This study is a contribution to the analysis of sources and distribution of direct, precursors and indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Industrial Processes and Porduct Use (IPPU) sector in Togo over 1995-2015 time series. In order to do this, the activity data collection was carried out in national and international data banks. All emission factors (EF) were collected in the IPCC's Emission Factor Database (EFDB). The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, the IPCC Inventory Software, Version 2.17.5904.23036 of Tuesday, March 1, 2016 and the EMEP / CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guide provided methodologies for estimating anthropogenic GHG and precursors emissions by sources. Overall, the sector emitted carbon dioxide (CO2) in 2010 as the only direct GES valued at 551.186 Gg, attributable to the cement plant. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emanates from cement manufacturing at the level of 0.324 Gg, while non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) estimated at 0.409 Gg were attributed to food and beverage preparation processes. Uncertainty estimates indicate an introduction of 13.60% on CO2 and SO2 emissions and 50% on emissions of NMVOCs. CO2 emissions from the cement plant contribute to 100% and remain the key source of the IPPU sector. The GHG emission’s trends over the period 1995 - 2015 were increasing with irregularities related to the activity regime.

Physiological responses of Ceratophyllum demersum L. to Nickel (Ni) and evaluation its phytoremediation potential

Karima F. Abbas

  • Abstract

    Aquatic plants play an important role in heavy metal and nutrient recycling in aquatic ecosystems, contaminants can be removed by aquatic plants and Ceratophyllum demersum L. consider one of these important plants. This study investigates the Physiological responses of C.demersum, native hydrophytes of most of Iraq’s rivers at four different concentration of nickel (0, 1, 5, and 10 mg/l) were applied at laboratory conditions for three weeks.Theplant showed tolerance, but the high Ni concentration declined progressively chlorophyll content, carotenoid, in addition to total protein which was 5.21 % at10 mg/l concentration, while at 1 mg/l concentration was 18.73%. Accumulation of Ni increased significantly with increasing metal concentration, the lower accumulated was (0.79) ppmat 0 mg/l while at 10 mg/l was17.21ppm. The activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased markedly after three weeks of exposure with Ni, the 10 mg/l concentration gave the highest values which were 5.87,4.95, 5.24 unit min-1 g-1 f. w respectively.

The Impact of Yucca (Yucca Elephantipes Regel) on the Amount of Indoor CO2 Depending on Temperature

Hakan SEVIK, Mehmet CETIN, Kerim GUNEY, Nur BELKAYALI

  • Abstract

    Today; at least 80% of human life passes in closed areas and the indoor air quality directly affects the health and performances of human beings. Especially when CO2 raises above a certain level, it causes to various disorders such as headache, dizziness, fatigue, concentration disorders, throat and nose irritations, nasal flow, cough and ocular flow. The most important factor affecting the indoor CO2 amount is the metabolic activities of the living. The amount of CO2 increasing with respiration decreases with photosynthesis. Therefore; plants could be used in indoors for the purpose of decreasing the CO2 amount. However; because there is no sufficient information in this issue, the plants cannot be efficiently and consciously used in the issue of decreasing the CO2 amount in indoors.it has been aimed to determine the change of the impact of yucca (Yucca elephantipes Regel) which is one of the plants most frequently used as an indoor decoration plant on the indoor CO2 amount depending on temperature. As a result of the study; it has been determined that the respiration made by yucca in dark environment is at an insignificant level depending on temperature. However; it has also been determined that it shows the highest impact in the temperatures 23-24 °C, its speed of photosynthesis at 30 °C is lower than that of 20 °C but higher than that of 15 °C in the environment in which there is light.

Evaluation of Some Quality and Environmental Indicators of Biofuels Produced In the Republic of Albania

Mirela Belshaku - Sulaj

  • Abstract

    Renewable resources at international level represent not only a solution to reduce economic dependence on oil-producing countries but also fulfilling the target of reducing global emissions of greenhouse effect, provided by the Kyoto Protocol, in order to protect the environment where we live. From 1990 to 2003, renewable energy sources are increased at the global level to the extent of 1.8%, slightly more than the demand for primary energy (1.6%), contributing to total energy supply at the level 5.6% for OSCE countries and 21.2% for non-OSCE countries. An important factor that affects the environment pollution is pollution caused by burning fuel in vehicles. In order to reduce this pollution in Europe and the world are provided instruments to support the development and production of biofuels, such as the adoption of legal measures and standards of biofuels used in the road transport or other fiscal incentives to stimulate their use. As a result of these developments in the Republic of Albania are taken a series of measures aimed at increasing the production and use of biofuels in transport vehicles. The purpose of this study is to estimate the technical and environmental parameters of biodiesel blended with diesel that is produced in Republic of Albania. Are studied the parameters: FAME-s and sulphur content, density and distillation curve for 1,466 biofuel samples tested in Customs Laboratory.

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