Vol. 7 & Issue 3 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : May 2017 to July 2017

 

Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution by Using Cestrum nocturnum Leaves, as a Low Cost Adsorbent

D. J. Borkar, N. S. Rajurkar and P. V. Adhyapak

JCBPS; Section D; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 512-525. 

[DOI: https:/doi.org/10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.51225]

  • Abstract

    In textile industries, Methylene blue (M.B.) dye is used for dyeing cotton and woolen silk fabrics. This dye is hazardous and responsible for severe water pollution. The present study focuses on effective removal of M.B. dye using Cestrum nocturnum leaves as an adsorbent by batch adsorption process. The effect of various parameters viz. pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, particle size, concentration and temperature on removal of dye have been studied. The adsorption efficiency of Cestrum nocturnum leaves was found to increase after chemical treatment of the leaves. The adsorption study, revealed that effective removal of the M.B. dye (4 ppm), was found to be 99.6% at pH 5, contact time 35 min., adsorbent dose 0.01gm and particle size 105μm. Cestrum nocturnum leaves were found to be potential novel adsorbent for the removal of M.B. from aqueous solution. Its adsorption followed pseudo second order kinetics. Adsorbed dyes can be effectively recovered using 0.1N HCl as an eluent. Thermodynamic analysis showed negative values of ΔG and ΔS indicating adsorption was favorable and spontaneous, Negative value of ΔH indicates sorption process was exothermic.

Etude des Formations Néogènes Traversées dans un Puits d'Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire) : Biostratigraphie et Paléoenvironnement

Zoh Derrick Aurelien BEHI, N’goran Jean-Paul YAO, Kouamé Alfred KOUASSI, Zeli Bruno DIGBEHI

JCBPS; Section D; May 2017 – July 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 526-538.

[DOI: http:/doi.org/10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.52638]

  • Abstract

    The sedimentological and biostratigraphic analyzes in this study were based on 142 samples. These are cuttings samples from BEHI-1 drilling located in the Estern part of the Ivorian coastal basin. These analyzes resulted in a paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Neogene sedimentary formations. The sedimentary formations contain various facies, including quartz sand and clay. The microfauna including Globigerinoides trilobus, Globigerina praebuloides praebuloides Globorotalia tumida tumida revealed a lower Miocene (Burdigalian) age in the range 138 m to 60 m. In these marine deposits of neritic environment, the predominance of benthic foraminifers reflects the favorable conditions of life on the bottom. The plurality of benthic hyaline forms reflects an oxic marine environment, shallow, calm and relatively hot. The benthic species that develop in this paleoenvironment are eurytherms, eurybaths and euryhalines. Lower Miocene indicates a transgressive episode to the Neogene materialized by a shallow warm sea.

    Résumé : Les analyses sédimentologique et biostratigraphique réalisées dans ce travail ont portées sur 142 échantillons. Ce sont des déblais issus du forage BEHI-1 implanté dans l’Est du littoral ivoirien. Ces analyses ont abouti à une reconstitution paléoenvironnementale des formations sédimentaires du Néogène. Les cortèges sédimentaires renferment des faciès variés dont des sables quartzeux et des argiles. La microfaune comprenant les espèces Globigérinoides trilobus, Globigerina praebuloides praebuloides Globorotalia tumida tumida a révélé un âge miocène inférieur (Burdigalien)  dans l’intervalle 138 m à 60 m. Dans ces dépôts marins de milieu néritique, la prédominance des foraminifères benthiques traduit les conditions favorables de vie sur le fond. L'abondance des formes benthiques calcaires hyalines traduit un environnement marin oxique, peu profond et calme et relativement chaud. Les espèces benthiques se développant dans un tel paléoenvironnement sont eurythermes, eurybathes et euryhalines. Le Miocène inférieur indique donc un épisode transgressif au Néogène matérialisé par une mer chaude peu profonde.

First demonstration of the effectiveness of predation of Oreochromis niloticus used for the biological control of microalgae polluting the drinking water of the periurban dam of Ziga, Burkina Faso

Première mise en évidence de l’efficacité prédation de Oreochromis niloticus utilisée pour le contrôle biologique des micro-algues polluant les eaux de boisson du barrage périurbain
de Ziga, Bur

NEYA Bapiyan Augustin KABRE Tinkoudougou Jean André, SAWADOGO Moumouni

JCBPS; Section D; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 539-558.

[DOI: https://doi.org/10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.53958]

 

  • Abstract

    We, of February 20, 14 to 20 January, 15 captured, 437 Oreochromis niloticus in the reservoir Ziga exploited for drinking water. The size of the specimens fished varies from 92 to 200 mm. Linear regression of the intestine on the standard size of 43 O. niloticus gives a strong correlation r = 0.8790. Intestinal coefficient of all measured species ranges from 4.76 to 9.94 and essentially approximating O. niloticus fish phytoplanctonophages.Analysis of the stomach and intestinal contents of the specimens indicate a broad spectrum of action on harmful algae. 41 kinds of algae have been identified and belong to five branch lines. Chlorophyta accounts for 48.780%, Chromophyta 29.269%, Cyanophyta 14.634%, Pyrrophyta 4.878% and Euglenophyta 2.439%. The prey ranking by the MFI method% gives as preferred prey Nostoc sp sp Melosira and S ymbella sp. Analysis of stomach contents also revealed important types of algae ingested and incompatible with WHO's criteria for drinking water quality. These 7 kinds of algae producing toxins (Nostoc sp, Microcystis sp, Anabaena sp Merismopedia sp sp Lyngbya, Spirulina sp and sp Chroococcus), 6 kinds of algae responsible for tastes and odors in drinking water distributed (Melosira sp, Microcystis sp, sp Synedra, Anabaena sp sp Scenedesmus and Lyngbya s p) and 6 other kinds of algae responsible for cloggingtreatment stations filters (Melosira sp Peridinium sp sp Synedra, Navicula sp sp Diatoma and Euglena sp). Of roundworm eggs classified as secondary prey were also found in the stomach and intestinal Ocontent. niloticus. The comparison of phytoplanktonophage regime between specimens caught in the dry season (166) and those in the rainy season (271) showed no variation. Similarly, specimens of different size 92 Lsn' also showed no variation in diet. 

    Resume : Nous avons, de Février 14 à Janvier 15 capturé, 437 Oreochromis niloticus dans le lac de barragede Ziga, exploité à des fins d’eau potable. La taille des spécimens pêchés, varie de 92 à 200 mm. Larégression linéaire de l’intestin sur la taille standard de 43 O. niloticus donne une forte corrélation r=0.8790.Le coefficient intestinal de l’ensemble des espèces mesurées, varie de 4.76 à 9.94 rapprochant ainsi O.niloticus des poissons essentiellement phytoplanctonophages.L’analyse des contenus stomacaux et intestinaux des spécimens indiquent un large spectre d’action sur les algues nuisibles. 41 genres d’algues ont été identifiés et appartenant à cinq embranchements. Les Chlorophyta représentent 48,780 %, les Chromophyta 29,269 %, les Cyanophyta 14,634 %, les Pyrrophyta 4,878 % et les Euglenophyta 2,439 %. Le classement des proies par la méthode MFI% donne comme proies
    préférentielles Nostoc sp, Melosira sp et Symbella sp. L’analyse des contenus stomacaux ont également révélé d’importants genres d’algues ingérés et incompatibles aux critères attribués à la qualité d’eau potable par l’OMS. Il s’agit de 7 genres d’algues productrices de toxines(Nostoc sp ,Microcystis sp, Anabaena sp, Merismopedia sp, Lyngbya sp, Spirulina sp et Chroococcus sp), de 6 genres d’algues responsables de goûts et des odeurs dans l’eau potable distribuée (Melosira sp, Microcystis sp, Synedra sp, Anabaena sp, Scenedesmus sp et Lyngbya sp) et de 6 autres genres d’algues responsables du colmatage des filtres des stations de traitement (Melosira sp, Peridinium sp, Synedra sp, Navicula sp, Diatoma sp et Euglena sp). Des oeufs d’ascaris classés comme proies secondaires ont été également retrouvés dans les contenus stomacaux et intestinaux d’O. niloticus. La comparaison de régime phytoplanctonophage entre spécimens capturés en saison sèche (166) et ceux de la saison pluvieuse (271) n’a montré aucune variation. De même, les spécimens de taille différente 92 ≤ Ls 𝑚𝑚 𝑒𝑡 150 ≤ 𝐿𝑠 ≤ 200 𝑚𝑚 n’ont également montré aucune variation de régime. 

Reprocessing of Gango Gold Mine Tailings via Different Leaching Methods

Antonio Y. Asoy, Ronnie L. Besagas, Romeo M. Del Rosario, and Noel T. Dael

JCBPS; Section D; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 559-564. E- ISSN

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.55964]

  • Abstract

    The efficiency of four leaching methods, cyanide leaching, thiourea leaching, thiosulfate leaching, and iodine leaching, in leaching out gold in two categories of tailings, surface and 1 meter deep, from Gango Gold Mine was investigated. The tailings at Gango contain substantial amount of gold with 7.37 g/t and 7.38 g/t at the surface and at 1m deep, respectively. Empirical data revealed that thiosulfate is a good lixiviant rivaling cyanide in leaching gold from the tailings. The average gold extracted between the surface tailings and 1m deep tailings within just 5 h reaction time is 73.9 % for thiosulfate leaching and 73.4 % for cyanide leaching. Considering that cyanide is an environmental hazards due to its high toxicity, thiosulfate is viewed as a better lixiviant for the Gango Gold Mine tailings. Thiourea leaching and iodine leaching, on the other hand, resulted to poor leaching efficiency of 54.2% and 50.8%, respectively.

Greenhouse Controlled Study of the uptake of 226Ra by Leafy vegetables

A. El-Sharkawy and H. S. Orabi

JCBPS; Section D; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 565-570.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.56570]

  • Abstract

    Greenhouse experiments were carried out to investigate the 226Ra uptake by two types of leafy vegetables (cabbage and lettuce) that are widely consumed in Saudi Arabia and represent a considerable pathway for radium intake by the Saudi population. The presence of intense irrigation in some areas where the groundwaters have relatively high radium content has initiated the need to carry out this study. The tests were performed on non-contaminated soil (control) and the typical soil contaminated with the same irrigation water spiked with 226Ra in plastic pots. A high purity germanium detector of 70% relative efficiency has been exploited in the gamma measurements. The 226Ra transfer factors to cabbage and lettuce were 0.13 and 0.33 respectively. The 226Ra transfer factor to cabbage and lettuce showed similar values for both the control and contaminated samples. A correlation was found between the 226Ra content in irrigation water and its content in lettuce leaves. The limited number of samples and the lack of different radium activities didn’t allow reaching definitive facts regarding the transfer of 226Ra to leafy vegetables, taking into consideration that there may be a difference in the field conditions. It may be noted that irrigation water takes a considerable part in controlling the Ra transfer to leafy vegetables, since the soil components factor was kept constant in these tests.

Assessment of levels of some heavy metals in sewage water in Udgir (MS), India

R. B. Allapure

JCBPS; Section D; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 571-577.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.57177]

  • Abstract

    Utilization of water resources is crucial to agricultural production for meeting the ever increasing demand of irrigation water for producing more and more food. Since resources are limited and large gap exists between available water supply and amount required, appropriate use of waste water of domestic origin can help in meeting a part of increased demand of water for crop production .The present study aims to understand pollution status of the sewage with respect to heavy metals. Heavy metals like Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, were analyzed. The maximum concentration of Fe, Cu, Zn & Cd was recorded in all sewage water sample during summer season. While the minimum values recorded during rainy season.

New method for determination of cadmium in Brine water samples via cloud point extraction prior to FAAS using modifying agents

Nadhum A.N. Awaad and Bassam A. R. AL Abdul Aziz

JCBPS; Section D; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 578-587.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.57887]

  • Abstract

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) was developed for the separation and pre concentration of trace amounts of cadmium. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is combined with (CPE) for determine trace amounts of cadmium in brine water. The method is depended on the formation of the hydrophobic complex between Cd ions and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) followed by its extraction into a Triton X-114 using surfactant. The parameters such as pH of sample, concentrations of DDTC and Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature, and equilibrium time, which affect both complexation and extraction, are optimized. Under the selected optimum conditions, and use of magnesium nitrate as matrix modifying agents enable us to develop the direct method for determination cadmium in brine water. The accuracy of the method was better than (3.494) % while the detection limit was found to be (0.841 μg/l) for preconcentration of 1 ml of sample for the determination of Cadmium ions is obtained.

Spatial and Temporal Variations in Physico-Chemical Parameters and Nutrients, Along a Gradient of Anthropogenic Activities within Kapsabet River, Kenya

Eliud Limo

JCBPS; Section D; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 588-602.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.58802]

  • Abstract

    Abstract: Anthropogenic activities can affect the quality of materials discharged into such systems. Pollutants enter the aquatic environment via water from the catchments originating from settlement areas and from areas with anthropogenic activities including from industrial sources. Sediments then act as repository for the metals and can be remobilized to be available in the water column and disturb the aquatic biota. Therefore prudent management of aquatic environments require information on their quality status that can be estimated by monitoring water quality and presence of other pollutants. To this purpose, water, soils and sediments samples were collected along four sites and characterized for the physico-chemical parameters and nutrients in the dry and wet seasons. The parameters analyzed were: temperature, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and total suspended solids (TSS) while phosphates and nitrates were the nutrients analyzed. TSS and TDS were determined by gravimetric method, COD titrimetrically, BOD by incubation, phosphates and nitrates by colorimetric method. Data was analyzed statistically using SPSS computer package. Their spatial and temporal values were: in water, pH (7.2 -10.3), TSS (110 -1301 mg/L), TDS (868 - 2990 mg/L), COD (6.0 – 67 mg/L), BOD (3.0 - 33.7 mg/L) PO43- (0.2 - 2.1 mg/L) and NO3- (0.6 - 4.5 mg/L), in soil and sediments, PO43- mean values were: 0.5-1.8 mg/L and 0.7 – 2 mg/L, respectively, while NO3- in soil and sediments were: 5-5.2 mg/L and 8-8.0 mg/L, respectively. The physico-chemical parameters and nutrients displayed significant (p < 0.06) temporal variations. pH was highest in site S2, TSS, COD and BOD were highest in site S4 while TDS was highest in site S1. highest values of physico-chemical were recorded in the rainy season. Further, there were significant (p < 0.05) spatio-temporal variation in the physicochemical parameters.

Bacteriological and physicochemical quality of Jimma town water supply at pre and post distributed to Jimma town residents, Oromia regional state, southwestern Ethiopia

Diriba Fufa, Shiferaw Demissie and Gadisa Natea

JCBPS; Section D; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 603-611.

[DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.60311]

  • Abstract

    Often, the quality of drinking/potable water has been a major health concern, particularly in developing countries, where 80% of the disease cases are attributed to inadequate sanitation and use of contaminated water. The aim of this study was to assess the bacteriological and physicochemical quality of Jimma town water supply. During this study, survey of sanitary programs applied by local water system supplier was conducted. Moreover, standard microbiological methods were carried out for determination of bacterial load and detection of coliforms, and also physicochemical analysis such as free residual chlorine, total dissolved solids (TDS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity and odour were conducted, accordingly. Results of this study indicated that, the turbidity of the water at site A and B had been a ranged from 1.0 – 1.22, 15.6-16.0 NTU(nephelometric turbidity units), dissolved solids 515 – 525, 1150-1250 mg/l, total hardness 118-134, 255-265mg/l, and free residual chlorine 0.31-0.53, 0 mg/l, respectively. Moreover, water samples collected from site B (Jimma town, i.e. from water pipes) were positive for coliform bacteria, which was ranged between 11-33 MPN (CFU/100 ml). In contrast, none of coliform bacteria detected from site A (at Jimma town water treatment plant). Generally, result of bacteriological and physicochemical study indicated that potable water used by Jimma town residents was beyond the maximum tolerable level recommended by WHO. Thus, it calls for appropriate intervention and improving the existing methods of water treatments.

Physico-chemical characterization of Niayes peat from Mboro and Touba Ndiaye (Senegal)

Dethié NDIAYE, Mamadou FALL, Bachir DIOUF, Bineta FAYE SANE, Alioune Badara DIEYE

JCBPS; Section D; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 612-629.

[DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.61229]

  • Abstract

    Information on the physicochemical properties of the Niayes peat in Senegal remains low despite sedimentological, geochemical and palynological studies carried out on this agropedological environment. The present study investigates, among other things, the physical and chemical characteristics of samples of peat harvested from two localities in this agro-geological zone of the Niayes. Sampling is carried out in the "Niayes" of Mboro and Touba Ndiaye, respectively. The samples were analysed after conditioning in the laboratory of the National Institute of Pedology of Dakar (INP).The results of the analysis have relatively satisfactory physico-chemical characteristics for a soil intended for vegetable crops. At Mboro, the peat showed a very acidic and very saline peat (pH: 2.9; EC: 473 μS.cm-1) 2170 μS.cm-1). Nevertheless, satisfactory to very satisfactory fertility parameters are of agronomic interest for vegetable crops. From a granulometric point of view, the clastic constituents are dominated by clay fractions, sandy (fine,medium and coarse sand) and silty (fine and coarse silt). The soils are hydromorphic,with heavy textures: sandy clay loams at Mboro and heavy clay little loamy at Touba Ndiaye. The chemical analysis of the samples revealed sufficient levels with regard to the mineral elements (C.E.C, exchangeable cations, etc.).

    Resume :Les informations sur les propriétés physico-chimiques des tourbes des « Niayes » du Sénégal restent peu nombreuses malgré des études sédimentologiques,géochimiques et palynologiques réalisées sur cet environnement agropédologique.La présente étude s’emploie à déterminer entre autres les caractéristiques physiques et chimiques d’échantillons de tourbes prélevés dans deux localités de cette zone agropédologique des « Niayes ».L’échantillonnage est effectué respectivement dans les « Niayes » de Mboro et de Touba Ndiaye. Les échantillons ont été analysés après conditionnement au laboratoire de l’Institut National de Pédologie de Dakar (INP).Les résultats d’analyse présentent des caractéristiques physico-chimiques relativement satisfaisantes pour un sol destiné aux cultures maraîchères. Si à Mboro les analyses révèlent une tourbe neutre et légèrement saline (pH : 6,5 ; CE : 473 μS.cm-1), à Touba Ndiaye, la tourbe apparait très acide et très saline (pH : 2,9 ; CE : 2170 μS.cm-1). Néanmoins, les paramètres de fertilité satisfaisants à très satisfaisants sont du point de vue agronomique intéressant pour les cultures maraîchères. Du point de vue granulométrique, les constituants clastiques sont dominés par les fractions argileuses, sableuses (sable fin, moyen et grossier) et limoneuses (limon fin et grossier). Les sols sont hydromorphes, à textures lourdes : limons sablo-argileux à Mboro et argile lourde peu limoneuse à Touba Ndiaye. L’analyse chimique des échantillons a révélé des taux suffisants en ce qui concerne les éléments minéraux (C.E.C, cations échangeables…).