Vol. 8 & Issue 3 ; Section D : Environmental Sciences

Date : May to July 2018


Impact of cyclonic storm Ockhi on the quality of water in two famous temple tanks located along the banks of Pazhayar River, Kanyakumari district, South India

Dr. P. Maria Pushpam and P.Asirvathappan

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.15155]

  • Abstract

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of cyclonic storm Ockhi on the quality of water in Arulmigu Nagaraja temple tank in Nagercoil and Arulmigu Sthanumalaya Swamy temple tank in Suchindrum of Kanniyakumari district with respect to different physicochemical parameters.

Influence of Diogo heavy mineral sand mining process on physical and chemical characteristics and microbiological properties of dune soils in the northern coastal line of Senegal

Mandiéré FALL, Dioumacor FALL , Saliou NDIAYE, Idrissa GUIRO, Niokhor BAKHOUM, Diegane DIOUF

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.15671]

  • Abstract

    Whilst important for the Senegalese economy, mining may causes destruction of vegetation, soil degradation and other environmental impacts. Our study aimed to assess the effect of the Diogo mineral sand process on the physical and chemical characteristics and microbiological properties of dunes soils in order to successfully rehabilitate the mined area in the northern coast of Senegal. Soils were sampled before and after mining at 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-100 cm, 4-5 and 9-10 m horizons in dry season (March). Results showed that depth and the interaction between depth and mining had no significant effect on physical and chemical characteristics (pH, electrical conductivity, carbon, nitrogen, exchangeable bases, granulometry) of dune soils. However, mined dune soils demonstrated significantly decreased electrical conductivity, calcium, potassium, manganese and cation exchange capacity. No significant effect of mining was observed on total carbon and total nitrogen. However, a significant increase in pH, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, iron, saturation rate, clays, silts and coarse sands was noted in the tailings. The depth had no significant negative effect on soil total microbial biomass, Azospirillum, Phosphobacteria populations. In contrast, mining decreased these microorganisms. AMF spores, Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria were significantly higher before than after mining at 4-5 m horizon. Mining process modified the structure of soil microbial communities and decreased the number and the activities of soil microorganisms. Mineral sand mining process alters the physical and chemical parameters, decreases the microorganism richness and modifies the structure of microbial communities of soil. However, it is necessary to follow the dynamic of these parameters during the years of site rehabilitation.

Physicochemical and Bacteriological Assessment of Some Drinking Water Sources around Student Hostel in Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti

Onifade Olajumoke Evelyn ; Faeji Charles Oluwafemi; Owoeye Josiah Abolade  and Onipede Theresa

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.17284]

  • Abstract

    The physicochemical and bacteriological assessment of water sources in Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti campus and its environ was done. In this study, a total of ten (10) water sources (borehole and well) were sampled. The Total bacteria and coliform enumeration were determined using pour plating and multiple tube techniques, the antibiotic susceptibility was carried out using disc diffusion method, while physico-chemical and mineral studies were also carried out using standard methods. It revealed that all the mineral content of the water samples falls within the recommended limits set by Standard Organization of Nigeria for Drinking Water. The Total Bacteria Count mean value ranges between 2.0 X 102 CFU/ml to 60.0 X 102CFU/ml. The percentage distribution of bacteria isolated from water samples analysed revealed that Escherichia coli (32.00%) had the highest occurrence, followed by Klebsiella spp. (20.00%), Enterobacter spp. (16.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.0%), Serratia spp. (8.00%) and Shigella spp. (8.00%). The antibiotics sensitivity test showed resistance of the isolates to the respective antibiotics in the corresponding percentage; Nitrofurantoin (33%), Gentamycin (60%), Clotrimazole (80.95%) Ofloxacin (33%), Amoxicillin (95%), Ciprofloxacin (76.17%), Tetracycline (71.43%), Perfloxacin (80.95%), Augmentin (80.95%) and Ceftriaxone (66.67%). This study revealed the presence of coliform and other pathogens in the water samples which indicates risk involved in the consumption of water from such sources, and therefore could be hazardous to human health, hence the need for proper and adequate treatment of water from these sources.

Earthworms and soil-feeding termites (Cubitermes subcrenulatus) adopt a strategy of ecological niche by the sharing of space in the natural reserve of Lamto in Côte d'Ivoire

TOURE Mamadou, EHOUMAN N’guetta Moïse, TIHO Seydou, OUATTARA Noufou Doudjo

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.18596.]

  • Abstract

    The ecosystems engineers are considered as a prime resource of agroecosystems because they regulate the soil biological process. Among them, earthworms and soil-feeding termites that have the same diet and similar roles on the soil structure have been the subject of this study. It focuses on the influence of Cubitermes subcrenulatus nests on the distribution of earthworm communities in the Lamto savannas (Côte d'Ivoire). In total, 15 living nests of Cubitermes subcrenulatus remote the one of the other of 200 m have been identified randomly in the forest block of "Yao Ble Boka". Around each of these nests (center of the circle), 9 monoliths of modified Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TSBF) type (50 cm x 50 cm x 30 cm) were arranged on three circles (C I, C II and C III) of respective radius, 0.75 m, 1.25 m and 1.75 m. In each of the monoliths, earthworms and Cubitermes subcrenulatus were sampled by direct manual sorting by layer of 10 cm (0-10 cm; 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm). Eight (08) species of earthworms were collected. It was noted that around the nests of Cubitermes subcrenulatus, the structure of the earthworm communities is characterized by preponderance and regular frequency endogeic earthworms compared to epigeic earthworms. Earthworms and termites related to these nests have a reverse spatial distribution which is done by only remoteness. These results show that around the nests of Cubitermes subcrenulatus (i) the structuring of the earthworms communities appears to be a function of the activities of the termites that reside there. (ii) The presence of nests does not does not result in behavioral change or preferential biotope to earthworms. This seems to foster a good dynamics of the organic matter in the soils located near the nests.

Les vers de terre et les termites humivores (Cubitermes subcrenulatus) adoptent une stratégie de niche écologique par partage d’espace dans la réserve naturelle de Lamto en Côte d’Ivoire

TOURE Mamadou, EHOUMAN N’guetta Moïse, TIHO Seydou, OUATTARA Noufou Doudjo

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.18596.]

  • Abstract

    Les ingénieurs des écosystèmes sont considérés comme une ressource primordiale des agroécosystèmes car ils régulent les processus biologique du sol. Parmi ceux-ci, les vers de terre et les termites humivores qui ont le même régime alimentaire et des rôles similaires sur la structure du sol, ont fait l’objet de cette étude. Elle porte sur l’influence des nids de Cubitermes subcrenulatus sur la distribution des communautés de vers de terre dans les savanes de Lamto (Côte d’Ivoire). Au total, 15 nids vivants de Cubitermes subcrenulatus, distants les un des autres de 200 m ont été repérés de façon aléatoire dans l’îlot forestier de «Yao Blé Boka». Autour de chacun de ces nids (centre du cercle), 9 monolithes de type TSBF (Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility) modifié (50 cm x 50 cm x 30 cm) ont été disposés sur trois cercles (C I, C II et C III) de rayons respectifs, 0,75 m, 1,25 m et 1,75 m. Dans chacun des monolithes, les vers de terre et les Cubitermes subcrenulatus ont été échantillonnés par tri manuel direct par strate de 10 cm (0-10 cm; 10-20 cm et 20-30 cm). Huit (08) espèces de vers de terre ont été collectées. Il est ressortit qu’autour des nids de Cubitermes subcrenulatus, la structure des communautés de vers de terre est caractérisée par une prépondérance et une fréquence régulière des vers endogés comparativement aux vers épigés. Les vers terre et les termites liés à ces nids ont une distribution spatiale inverse qui se fait uniquement par éloignement. Ces résultats montrent qu’aux alentours des nids de Cubitermes subcrenulatus (i) la structuration des communautés de vers de terre, semble être fonction des activités exercées par les termites qui y résident. (ii) La présence des nids n’entraine pas de changement de comportement ou de biotope préférentiel aux vers de terres. Ceci semble favoriser une bonne dynamique de la matière organique dans les sols situés à proximité des nids. 

Neoproterozoic Dindéfélo waterfall geosite (DCNR, Bassari country, Eastern Senegal): biodiversity and geodiversity between conservation and valorization

Cheikh Ibrahima YOUM, Ezzoura ERRAMI, El Hadji SOW,

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.19724]

  • Abstract

    The Dindéfélo Community Natural Reserve (DCNR), created to preserve the biodiversity and to ensure the sustainable development of the territory, is especially famous for its waterfalls of which the best known and the most visited is the Dindéfélo waterfall. The latter is hosted by the Neoproterozoic Dindéfélo formations in the current Kédougou region, between the Niokolo Koba National Park and the mountainous Fouta-Djalon massif in Guinea-Conakry. This latter offers a great abiotic diversity or geodiversity that consist of various rocks of differents natures and ages and geomorphological landscapes made of waterfalls, caves and plateaus, compatible with the installation of a particular biological community (biodiversity) that it is strongly threatened in Senegal and some of which are in process of disappearance. A dozen associated to the Dindéfélo waterfall geosites, which deserve to be valued and protected, have been inventoried. The Dindéfélo waterfall geosite was chosen to promote the geodiversity as a support of the biodiversity and the geoheritage as a tool for human and socio-economic local sustainable development in the region. The integration of this geoheritage in the biodiversity protection and enhancement program of the DCNR and of the cultural heritage of the Bassari Country could help promoting a new touristic niche in Senegal, the geotourism and adoption of a new label, the geopark

Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Brahmaputra River Basin: A GIS Based Water Quality Assessment with Seasonal Variation in Dhemaji (Assam), India

Mridul Buragohain

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.22535]

  • Abstract

    Distribution of arsenic and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns nowadays. Millions of individuals worldwide are suffering from arsenic toxic effect due to drinking of arsenic -contaminated groundwater. The Bengal delta plain, which is formed by the Ganga–Padma–Meghna–Brahmaputra river basin, covering several districts of West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh is considered as the worst arsenic -affected alluvial basin. The present study was carried out to investigate the seasonal variations of arsenic in groundwater of Dhemaji district of Assam, an adjoining region of the West Bengal and Bangladesh borders. Sixty groundwater samples were collected from tubewells of five development blocks of dhemaji district (Assam) in one year period, during December 2016 to November 2017 using GIS technique. The present study showed that out of the 60 groundwater samples, 37%, were found contaminated with higher arsenic contents (WHO; arsenic 10 µg/L for potable water). The most badly affected area was the Sissiborgaon development block, where 75% of the samples had arsenic concentration above the WHO drinking water guideline values. In this block, the highest arsenic concentration was recorded 19.45 µg/L at sampling point, B-7. Significant variation was observed between pre-monsoon (October to April) and post-monsoon (May to September). Arsenic concentration is sufficiently higher in post-monsoon than in pre-monsoon season.

Public Health Quality of Raw Milk sold in District Korangi, Karachi, Pakistan

Aamir Alamgir, Noor Fatima, Omm-e-Hany and Bisma Ali.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.23645]


  • Abstract

    This study was conducted to evaluate the public health quality of raw milk sold in district Korangi, Karachi. A total of 20 milk samples were collected randomly in a pre-sterilized glass bottles for the laboratory analysis comprises of methylene blue reduction test and isolation of bacterial and fungal species. The methylene blue test was done for raw milk samples indicated that out of 20 samples, six samples were poor, nine samples were fair, two samples were good and only three samples were excellent. Similarly, only five samples out of twenty were free from pathogens particularly from E.coli, Salmonella and Lactobacillus species. Fungal species were found in all the samples. Aspergillus niger are present in all the samples with abundance growth while 13 samples were contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus fumigatus were also observed in few samples. Similarly, Rhizopus, Penicillium, Curvularia, Fusarium and Mucor were also observed in few samples. Overall, the raw milk sold in district Korangi is unfit for human consumption.

Comparative Assessment of the Levels of Pathogenic Bacteria and Heavy Metals in Herbal Liquors, Roots and Teas Sold Within Awka and Enugu Metropolis

Ezeh E., Okeke O., Ozuah A.C and Emeribe I.E

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.24656.]

  • Abstract

    Studies were carried out to comparatively assess the levels of pathogenic bacteria and heavy metals in the herbal liquors, roots and teas sold within Awka and Enugu metropolis using relevant analytical procedures and instrumentation. Three pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus spp, Klebsiella pneumonae and Aspergillus niger) were identified and isolated in the herbal root, liquor and tea samples sold within Awka and Enugu metropolis. The mean Cfu counts of the pathogenic bacteria in the herbal products were within the microbial contamination limits for medicinal plant materials intended for internal use. The studied heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn and Hg) were found present at non-toxic levels in all the herbal products sold within Awka and Enugu Metropolis. Statistical analysis of the Cfu counts of the pathogenic bacteria and heavy metal levels in the herbal products showed significant difference at p < 0.05. The order of decrease of the mean Cfu counts and heavy metal contamination of the herbal samples sold within the two studied environments were, herbal liquor > herbal root > herbal tea.

Effect of Application of Seasonings/Spices and Heating/ Processing Methods on the Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons And Heavy Metals In Cooked, Fried And Roasted Meats Sold Within Enugu Metropolis

Okeke O., Aburu C.M., Ozuah A.C and 4Ezeh E.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.25768]

  • Abstract

    Studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of application of seasonings/spices and heating/processing methods on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in cooked, fried and roasted meats sold within Enugu metropolis using relevant established analytical procedures and instrumentation. Out of the ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) studied, only eight (phenanthrene, anthracene, benzo @anthracene, benzo@ pyrene, acenapthene, pyrene, chrysene and fluorene) were detected in the meat samples. The mean levels of these PAHs in the meat samples were found to be statistically significant at p < 0.05. Higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo @ anthracene, benzo @ pyrene, chryene and pyrene were present at toxic levels in the studied fried and roasted meat samples. Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, and Fe were all present in the analyzed meat samples at level within their respective permissible limits. Statistical analysis of the mean levels of the detected PAHs and heavy metals in the meat samples revealed significance at p < 0.05. The study shows that application of seasonings and method of heating/processing foods such as meats  significantly influences its accumulation of toxic substances such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic compounds.

Variation of Endemic Copepod Leptodiaptomus cuauhtemoci in Zempoala Lake, Morelos, Mexico

Variación Del Copépodo Endémico Leptodiaptomus cuauhtemoci en el Lago Zempoala, Morelos, México

Roberto Trejo-Albarrán, José Guadalupe Granados-Ramírez², José Luis Gómez-Márquez y Andrea Elizabeth Granjeno-Colín

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.26984.]

  • Abstract

    Copepods have an ecologically important role in the freshwater ecosystem, since they constitute the secondary basic unit of organic matter production in these ecosystems and in the State of Morelos, there are few faunistic registers of this group. The aim of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporary variation of the Leptodiaptomus cuahutemoci and its relation with some environmental parameters. Six stations were established for biological collection: three (E-1, E-2 and E-3) in the limnetic zone with vertical collections at three depths and three more in the littoral zone (E-4, E-5 y E-6) with a superficial collection (0.30 m). Monthly samples were taken for physical and chemical water analysis at different depth levels. At the level of 0.30 m, the abundance in decreasing order was: 1 543 org/L in E-1, E-2 with 1 251 org/L, E-4 with 1 117 org/L, E-5 with 1024 org/L, E-3 with 932 org/L and 662 org/L with E-6, with larger densities in the limnetic stations compared to littoral stations (Kruskal-Wallis, H=22.5; p<0.05). Due to physical and chemical characteristics of water, Zempoala Lake is considered an aquatic system well oxygenated, low in conductivity aquatic system with warm waters, with a mixing period and another of water stratification. L. cuauhtemoci is a species whose composition, abundance and spatial distribution, respond more to biological cycles affecting the population dynamic rather than physical and chemical factors.

Bioaccumulation and heavy metal induced physiological stress in the freshwater prosobranch snail Bellamya bengalensis (L)

Kamble N. A.

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.28598]

  • Abstract

    Aquatic molluscs are ideal invertebrate model systems for monitoring environmental quality and toxicology. Heavy metal ions enter living organisms via either intake with food or uptake from surrounding water. However, wide variety of stressors including the heavy metals and adverse water quality conditions can have significant effects on animal physiology. They have been proposed and reported to cause significant ecological damage to the mollusc population through a reduction in scope of growth leading to overall small size of individuals, tissue deformities and abnormalities, mass mortalities etc,. This study reviews some of the stress evidences or biomarker responses of the molluscs against aquatic trace metals and water quality contamination. The results indicated that the accumulation of heavy metals is predominant in molluscs after induction than in water. The gastropod can accumulate different amount of metals in their tissues as per concentration and exposure period. The results were interpreted for stress physiology in the experimental animal Bellamya bengalensis (L) from different tissues