Section D : Environmental Sciences

Current Volume 9 & Issue 1 (Section D : Environmental Science)

Current Issue Date 01-11-2018 to 31-01-2019


From scientific inventory to socio-economic sustainable development: Tidzi Diapir geosite (Essaouira basin, Morocco)

T.Y. Arrad, E. Errami, N. EnnihT.Y. Arrad, E. Errami, N. Ennih

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.9.1.00117.]

Geology and geomorphology, called commonly geoheritage, play an important role in any sustainable development process. Moreover, a growing interest in the preservation and enhancement of geodiversity is attested by the proliferation of scientific research in this area. The present work concerns the geology of the Tidzi Diapir geosite that is a part of the inventory project of the geological and geomorphological heritage of Essaouira province. The approach used is inspired by the methodology developed by the IUGL, modified according to the need of the study. The results are stored in a database and visualized via interactive digital mapping. The goal is to develop an inventory that preserves geoheritage and promotes it as a lever for local socio-economic development through the creation of new income-generating activities through geotourism. This initiative is important in a region with a high unemployment, harsh natural conditions and impressive geodiversity.

Evaluation des impacts sanitaires et environnementaux du dysfonctionnement du réseau d’eaux usées de la commune de Port-Bouët (Abidjan-Côte d’Ivoire)

GNAGNE Agness Essoh Jean Eudes Yves, BALLET Tiama Guy Nicaise, OKOU Gnahoua Magloire, KONE Sabine, AHOULÉ Dompé Ghislain, YAPO Bernard Ossey

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.9.1.05166.]

La commune de Port-Bouët, à l’instar des autres communes de la ville d’Abidjan, rencontre d’énormes difficultés pour la gestion de ses eaux usées avec la rapide croissance de sa population. A cela, s’ajoute la dégradation des ouvrages d’assainissement existants, les eaux usées domestiques ruissellent, stagnent dans les espaces vides, les rues, la chaussée et les drains, entrainant des odeurs nauséabondes. Afin d’évaluer les impacts sanitaires et environnementaux liés au dysfonctionnement du réseau d’eaux usées de la commune de Port-Bouët, des enquêtes ont été menées. Une adressée à 384 ménages des secteurs de Port-Bouët Centre et de Vridi pourvus en réseau assainissement, et deux autres auprès de la DRASA (Direction régionale de l’assainissement d’Abidjan Sud) et des hôpitaux de Port-Bouët et Vridi Cité. Les analyses des paramètres physico-chimiques et bactériologiques ont été réalisées grâce à la norme française et les méthodes décrites par Rodier. Elles ont indiqué des concentrations moyennes élevées pour les paramètres chimiques de pollution. Les résultats des analyses bactériologiques confirment la présence de divers germes tels que les coliformes totaux et fécaux et les streptocoques fécaux en quantité très appréciable qui excède les directives de l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS). Aussi, les données recueillis au sein des hôpitaux de Port-Bouët et Vridi-Cité présentent des pourcentages (88,31% pour le secteur Port-Bouët Centre et 89,16% pour la zone de Vridi) très élevés pour les maladies telles que ; la diarrhéique, le paludisme, et la fièvre typhoïde. On note ainsi, que le dysfonctionnement du réseau d’eaux usées de la commune de la Port-Bouët entraine la prolifération des maladies liées au mauvais assainissement des eaux usées, et la dégradation du cadre de vie des populations riveraines.

La géologie et la géomorphologie jouent un rôle important dans tout processus de développement. D’ailleurs, un intérêt croissant en faveur de la préservation et la valorisation de la géodiversité est attesté par la multiplication des recherches scientifiques dans ce domaine. Le présent travail concerne le géosite du "Diapir de Tidzi" et s’insère dans le cadre du projet d’inventaire du patrimoine géologique et géomorphologique de la province d’Essaouira. L’approche utilisée est inspirée de la méthodologie développée par l’IUGL, modifiée en fonction du besoin de l’étude. Les résultats sont stockés dans une base de données et visualisés via la cartographie numérique interactive. Le but est d’élaborer un inventaire qui permet de préserver le géopatrimoine et de l’activer en tant que levier de développement socio-économique à travers la création d’activités génératrice de revenus. Cette initiative trouve toute son importance dans une région à fort taux de chômage, aux conditions naturelles dures et bénéficiant d’une géodiversité impressionnante

Seasonal Dynamics of the Nutrient Contributions and Limiting Factor in the Urban Area of the Lagoon Ebrie (Abidjan, Cote D'ivoire).

AKILINON G. Valentin, GNAGNE A. E. Yves, OHOU M. J. Adelaïde, AHOULE D. Ghislain, YAPO O. Bernard

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.9.1.01829.]

The amplification of the urban water enrichment process of the Ebrie lagoon with nutrients is a potential risk of eutrophication of this ecosystem. In order to fight against this phenomenon, this study aims to identify the state and the enrichment dynamics of these waters in nutrients. Fifteen lagoons sampling campaigns were conducted from 2014 to 2016 on fourteen (14) sites. The samples were subjected to physicochemical analyzes on the basis of French standards. The results obtained show that the physico-chemical characteristics of urban waters are strongly linked to the combined influence of lagoon hydroclimate and anthropogenic pressure. The limit values ​​recommended by Chapman and Rodier in the case of an unpolluted natural environment are largely exceeded in at least 50% of measurements made on nutrients. The assessment of the N / P ratio indicates that nitrogen is the factor limiting the algal growth in the waters, with the exception of the deep waters in the areas of Cocody and Azito, where during the flood season it is phosphorus which becomes limiting. Therefore, to avoid eutrophication of the lagoon environment, it will generally be necessary to limit inputs of nitrogen compounds.

Dynamique Saisonnière Des Apports En Eléments Nutritifs Et Facteur Limitant Dans La Zone Urbaine De La Lagune Ebrié (Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire).

AKILINON Gansso Valentin, GNAGNE Agness Essoh Jean Eudes Yves, OHOU Marie Jeanne Adelaïde, AHOULE Dompé Ghislain Maxime, YAPO Ossey Bernard

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.9.1.01829.]

L’amplification du processus d’enrichissement des eaux urbaines de la lagune Ebrié en sels nutritifs constitue un risque potentiel d’eutrophisation de cet écosystème. Afin de lutter contre ce phénomène, la présente étude se propose de cerner l’état et la dynamique d’enrichissement de ces eaux en nutriments. Ainsi, quinze campagnes de prélèvement d’eaux lagunaires ont été effectuées de 2014 à 2016 sur quatorze (14) sites. Les échantillons ont fait l’objet d’analyses physico-chimiques sur la base des normes françaises. Les résultats obtenus montrent que les caractéristiques physico-chimiques des eaux urbaines sont fortement liées à l’influence conjuguée de l’hydroclimat lagunaire et de la pression anthropique. Les valeurs limites recommandées par Chapman et Rodier dans le cas d’un milieu naturel non pollué, sont largement dépassées dans au moins 50 % des mesures effectuées sur les nutriments. L’évaluation du rapport N/P indique que l’azote est le facteur limitant la croissance algale dans les eaux, à l’exception des eaux profondes dans les zones de Cocody et d’Azito où en saison des crues, c’est le phosphore qui devient limitant. Donc pour éviter l’eutrophisation du milieu lagunaire, il faudra de manière générale limiter les apports en composés azotés.

Evaluation of the concentrations of heavy and toxic metals in the water of Wadi Ganona, Southwestern Saudi Arabia

Ayed M. Al-Harthi and Zaki M. Al-Hasawi

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.9.1.03039.]

Fresh water in Saudi Arabia is very scarce, so dams were set up on waterways to reserve rainwater and prevent it from flowing into the sea so that people can use it in agriculture and drinking their animals. The water may be polluted as it passes through polluted areas and soils. And the Wadi Qnona in the North in Al-Aradia province of the south west of the Kingdom following Makkah region, is one of these dams in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results of its water chemical characters showed that the water content of heavy and toxic metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Alcd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Co, Hg, Ti, Ag, Ar, Mo, Sb, Be, V, As, Ba) are very low in comparison with local and international standards set for the concentrations of these metals in water used for drinking or agriculture because the high concentrations of these metals in water is one of the most serious problems. Based on the results of this study we recommend the use of water of dam Wadi Ganona for agricultural purposes and to drink animals, they are valid and do not cause health damage.

Evaluation of physico - chemical properties and quality of Wadi Ganona dam water, Southwestern Saudi Arabia

Zaki M. Al-Hasawi and Ayed M. Al-Harthi

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.9.1.04050.]

Fresh water in Saudi Arabia is very scarce, so dams were set up on waterways to reserve rainwater and prevent it from flowing into the sea so that people can use it in agriculture and drinking their animals. The water may be polluted as it passes through polluted areas and soils. And the Wadi Ganona in the North in Al-Aradia province of the south west of the Kingdom following Makkah region, is one of these dams in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results of its water physical and chemical characters showed that the water is alkaline and pH is more than 7, and its electrical conduction EC and Turbidity is less than local and international standards that have been suggested for water. Water is low in water hardness, and water is good in terms of total dissolved salts (TDS), dissolved oxygen content (DO), NH4-N ammonia, nitrite NO3-N and NO2-N are low and far less than FAO standard (FAO 1985) and the Saudi Ministry of Water and Electricity (MWE 2005). Sulphates (SO4-S) content is lower than WHO standard and the standard Europe countries. For HCO3 and Cl concentrations, the standards are lower than the global standards for drinking water and agriculture. As for the dam water content of major elements Na, Mg, Ca, K, the concentrations are all below the standards set locally and internationally for drinking water and agriculture. Based on the results of this study we recommend the use of water dam Wadi Ganona for agricultural purposes and to drink animals, they are valid and do not cause health damage.

Evaluation of the health and environmental impacts of the malfunction of the wastewater network in the municipality of Port-Bouët (Abidjan-Côte d'Ivoire)

GNAGNE Agness Essoh Jean Eudes Yves, BALLET Tiama Guy Nicaise, OKOU Gnahoua Magloire, KONE Sabin, AHOULÉ Dompé Ghislain, YAPO Bernard Osse

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.9.1.05166]

The municipality of Port-Bouët, like other municipalities in the city of Abidjan, faces enormous difficulties for the management of its wastewater with the rapid growth of its population. Added to this is the deterioration of existing sanitation facilities, domestic sewage runoff, stagnant in empty spaces, streets, pavement and drains, resulting in foul odors. In order to assess the health and environmental impacts related to the malfunction of the Port-Bouët municipality wastewater system, surveys were conducted. One addressed to 384 households in the areas of Port-Bouët Center and Vridi provided with sanitation network, and two others with the DCBA (Regional Directorate of Sanitation South Abidjan) and hospitals Port-Bouet and Vridi City. The analyzes of the physicochemical and bacteriological parameters were carried out thanks to the French standard and the methods described by Rodier. They reported high average concentrations for the chemical parameters of pollution. The results of the bacteriological analyzes confirm the presence of various organisms such as total and fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci in a very appreciable quantity which exceeds the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO). Also, the data collected in the Port-Bouët and Vridi-Cité hospitals show percentages (88.31% for the Port-Bouët Center sector and 89.16% for the Vridi zone) which are very high for diseases such as ; diarrhea, malaria, and typhoid fever. It should be noted that the malfunctioning of the Port-Bouët municipality's wastewater system is leading to the proliferation of diseases related to the poor sanitation of wastewater, and the deterioration of the living environment of local residents.

Application of modified analytical procedure for the determination of 226Ra in sea water samples

Wafaa.F.Bakr and Heba A. Anis 

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.9.1.13843.]

A minor modification of the radio-chemical determination of 226Ra by alpha spectrometry in water samples was carried out to overcome the effect of high salinity in sea water samples. Adjustment steps were applied to the radio-analytical procedure by using calcium phosphate co-precipitation and the addition of isopropanol. Method validation of the modified steps was carried using IAEA reference samples and spiked standard solutions. The modified procedure was applied in the determination of 226Ra in sea water samples collected from the North coast of Egypt.       

Comparative study of the evolution of mass balance on the ENPRO composting platform in Togo

Edem Komi Koledzi, Etsè Aziablé, Sassou MEGNASSAN

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.9.1.12737]

The mass balance is an opportunity to test different composting processes in terms of a new plan for turning over, watering, or enriching household waste with other materials. With regard to this process, this study was undertaken and aims at making a comparison of three mass balances over three consecutive years that will help review the sector of the in order to decide on the aspect of the production especially in terms of quality. Thanks to the results provided by this study, a better view of the process is possible, the data obtained are also necessary to the business field of the platform: sizing of the water supply - compost yield (exact quantity of compost for sale and so on. The different results have shown that the addition of other materials brought a slightly higher essential elements content (NPK) as well as for Mg, Na and Ca, necessary for plants. All the composts reached maturity and stability in the 12th week. The addition of hyacinth brought little more metal trace elements (MTE) but these values ​​are well below the limit values ​​of the Afnor standard. The impurity rate is negligible. In addition, the lixiviation test shows that there will be almost no release of metals after land amendment with composts; this would probably be due to the high content of the organic matter in the composts which would be responsible for the complex matter of the metals. Given the different results, these composts can be valued in agriculture without fearing any risk of phyto-toxicity and pollution.

Very early during the process of data assimilation, it became apparent that too few data were available for some amphibians and reptiles to provide comprehensive reviews of their status especially in their physical limiting factors. It has been, nevertheless, reviewed available data on those taxa, if for no other reason than that the gaps in current knowledge need emphasis. The combination of limited data on many species; the continuing rapid, human induced changes in many Sawa Lake-Euphrates River environments; and the continual appearance of new data of internet indicated that the most useful form that this research could take is one that could be readily modified. In particular, it should facilitate incorporating new info. An essential element of future reviews. We have attempted to structure the environmental relation with this idea in mind by using the temperature factor. Hopefully,   that it will induce authors of the Sawa ecological center to fill the essential data gaps so that those exercising stewardship over habitats in which these amphibians and reptiles occur can refine their management plans, and that consultants, legislators, planners, and others will be better advised or give sound advice where it relates to the biology and ecology of these organisms. The present search provides a list of most abundant amphibians and reptiles recorded from Sawa-Euphrates river region in Al-Samawah city from Iraq up to 2018, includes five families of reptiles and four families of amphibians, consist of twenty seven species distributed to seventeen species of reptiles and ten species of amphibians. Tadpole’s development was sake in the 15°C up to more than 35°C groups, and survivorship declined to 64% after 200 days. However, 80% of the surviving larvae remained alive after the temperature was increased to 25°C. Of these, 96% reached metamorphosis. Survivorship of the 20, 25 and 30°C acclimation groups was 85, 96 and 66%, respectively, whereas none survived at 35°C. There was a clear decline in range of reproduction by limiting factor to successful reestablishment of these reptiles by increasing the temperature up to 50 ᴼC.

Water Quality of Lake Badovc by Some Microbiological and Physico-Chemical Parameters

Ibush Luzha, Sabrie Spahiu,  Milazim Shabani

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.9.1.10616]

Badovc Lake is an artificial Lake which accumulates water from rivers that serves as drinking water for Pristina and villages around.An adequate program for sanitary protection of Lake Badovc does not exist until detailed study on the ecological protection is done.Rivers, lakes, seas and oceans have become the storage for waste, sewage and industrial wastewater. One of the lakes in the Republic of Kosovo that have such luck is Lake Badovc1. All waste waters are discharged directly into the rivers Slivovë, Mramor and Gracanka without any treating and after that in Lake Badovc and mostly the waters are polluted. Parts of lakes, rivers and streams are covered and go through underground pipes. Although the analysed parameters, we can see that some of them are up then maximum values allowed for the certain classification of waters and permissible limits based on Administrative Instruction No. 30/2014 on manners, parameters, and limit values of wastewater discharge into public sewage network and in the water body, issued by Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, Republic of Kosovo [1]. The purpose of our research is the quality of water Lake Badovc from the sanitary-ecological aspect.

Fouling Control by New Egyptian Natural Sources in Marine Aquaculture 

Samia Kh. Hamdona, Amaal E.A. Abo Taleb, Dalia M.S.A. Salem and Hermine R.Z. Tadros 

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbsc.D.9.1. 09204

In spite of success in using antifouling coatings as the most widely accepted method to control and prevent biofouling, efficient antifouling paints based on copper and tin biocides release toxic compounds causing adverse environmental effects. This work aims to use marine algae and land plant resources as naturally active and environmentally friendly biocides in antifouling paints. Grateloupia filicina, Corallina mediterranea, Mangrove leaves (Avecinia marina), Pepper (black pepper seeds) and Ulva lactuca were used in marine paint formulation by 10% concentration by weight. These marine paints’ formulations were applied on unprimed steel panels. The steel frame containing the coated unprimed steels with different biocides was hanged in the Eastern Harbor seawater in front of NIOF on 25 May 2017. Obtained results showed that all these new paint formulations recorded an activity against micro-and macro-fouling except barnacles and Calyptotheca alexandrines (a new species recorded in 2017). The unprimed coated steel panel containing grateloupia filicina showed the best results followed by Corallina mediterranea and extended for 140 days. This period (140 days) of study was during spring, summer and autumn seasons which are considered as the highest accumulation seasons for fouling organisms in Eastern Harbor of Alexandria area

Assessment of physico-chemical characteristics of water samples in Lakhimpur district (Assam), India

M. Buragohain, N. Kakoti, P. Sarmah, B. K. Pegu, S. R. Mahanta, Y. Hassan

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.9.1.08191.]

With an increased understanding of the importance of drinking water to public health and raw water quality to aquatic life, assessment of water quality has become very important. In the present study, a total of 54 water samples are were collected from various water sources, namely hand-pumps, tube-wells, rivers of various blocks of Lakhimpur district, of Assam. Evaluation of physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, Conductance, Total Solids, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solid, Turbidity, Total Hardness, Sodium, Potassium, Phosphate, Chloride, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO)  as per standard procedures and result were compared with the standard as prescribed by WHO. The TSS values in few samples exceed the maximum permissible limit of WHO (i. e.100 ppm).  All the values of DO observed were higher than the permissible limit.. TS, TDS, TSS, potassium, chloride had high difference between their corresponding mean and median values, which signify that the observed values were asymmetric. On the other hand, other physico-chemical parameters had low difference between their corresponding mean and median values signifying symmetric distribution of observations. Conductance, TDS, TSS, TS had relatively higher values of standard deviation which indicates that most of the values in the observations were spread-out off their respective mean values. The other parameters had lower values of standard deviation indicating compactness of the distributions.

Indoor Air Quality in Hospitals: The Case of Kastamonu- Turkey

Sevik Hakan, Isinkaralar Kaan, Isinkaralar Oznur

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.9.1.06773.]

People have been spending their days indoors and the air quality of these areas directly affects the health and performance in living urban areas. Especially in public places, the amount of oxygen decreases due to human respiration in the cramped and slightly ventilated environment. The various health problems occur because of the decrease of indoor air quality (IAQ). Fatigue, difficulty in detection, drowsiness and continuity are usually seen in people. This is an issue, which should be primarily investigated in hospitals. Because the patients and caregivers in the healthcare facility are directly affected by the low air quality in the health institutions. People who are coming or working in hospital for treatment have weak and quite higher risk factor. In this context, the indoor air quality has been investigated particulate matter (PM) and CO2 which is the most important pollutants in terms of human health in some hospitals in Kastamonu. As a result of the study, it is found that IAQ is not enough compared to air quality studies in the areas where hospitals are located, but it is generally not at a level that can threaten health in hospitals. It has also been determined that CO2 is much lower than other public facilities (school, shopping center etc.).

A Review on Role of Cattle Dung and Urine for Sustainable Soil Management

P.K.C. and S. Pandey

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.9.1.07480.]

Nepal’s traditional agriculture used to depends a lot on livestock for nutrients supply in the agricultural field. But with the introduction of chemical fertilizer the soil of the country is degrading. However this soil can be improved with the use of enough cattle manure and urine. These days the focus should be on sustainable agriculture and balanced fertilizer which is the judicious use of chemical fertilizer and organic manure. But due to less availability of chemical fertilizer and considering its harmful effect on the soil, it is emphasized for balanced fertilization by minimum use of chemicals and maximum use of organic fertilizers such as farm yard manure and animal urine.

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