Vol. 3 & Issue 2 ; Section C : Physical Sciences

Date : Feb. to Apr.2013


Dependence of Emissive Properties on Incident Angles for Tree L

D. V. Ahire and P. R. Chaudhari

  • Abstract

    Experimental results on the complex dielectric constant of tree leaves at Xband microwave frequencies (9.3, 10.5 and 11.2 GHZ) are reported. Leaves from two tree species viz., Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Acacia indica (Babool), have been used in these measurements. Our results indicate that dielectric constant (ε') for the leaves of Azadirachta indica lie over a range 1.25 to 7.0 when their gravimetric MC (%) (wet basis) changed from 0 % (oven dry) to around 65 % and for the leaves of Acacia indica lie over a range 1.25 to 7.6 when their gravimetric moisture content (wet basis) changed from 0 % (oven dry) to around 72 %. The corresponding values of dielectric loss (ε'') for the leaves of both tree species are also found to increase with increase in their MC. Further, the estimations of emissivity at different incident angles are made from the experimentally measured values of dielectric

Estimation of the Scattering Coefficient and Emissivity of Red

Avinash Patil, D. V. Ahire and P. R. Chaudhari

  • Abstract

    The soil is characterized by its physical constituents like sand, silt and clay. The electrical parameters that are important for soil are its dielectric constant, emissivity and scattering coefficient. The dielectric constant of wet soil mainly depends on amount of water present in it. In the present study, measurements of dielectric constant of red soil samples are made by using automated microwave set-up operating at X-band (9.2 GHz) and C-band (5.1 GHz) frequencies. These red soil samples are collected from two different locations situated in the North Maharashtra and Konkan areas of Maharashtra (India). The scattering coefficient is estimated using perturbation model for slightly rough surface for both (VV and HH) polarization and for different angles of incidence. The values of estimated scattering coefficient are related to constituents of the soil. Measured values of dielectric constant are also u

On The Existence of Affine Motions in Kaehleria Bi-Recurrent Spaces

U.S. Negi and Kailash Gairola

  • Abstract

    Takano and Imai (1972) have studied some types of affine motion in Birecurrent spaces; Singh (1971-72) has studied Kaehlerian recurrent and Ricci-recurrent spaces of second order. Further, Singh (1984) has studied the existence of affine motion in existence of affine motion in Kaehlerian Bi-recurrent spaces and several theorems have been investigated.

Synthesis and Electroluminescence of Manganese Activated ZnSe/PVA Nanocomposite

Nitendra Kumar Gautam, Sahid Shamim Naik, R.K. Kuraria, S.R. Kuraria and M. Ramrakhiani

  • Abstract

    Mn doped ZnSe nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix were prepared by single step solution method. All the ZnSe:Mn/PVA film samples were prepared by changing PVA loading. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique was used to characterize the final product. It was found by absorption spectra that the absorption edge was shifted towards lower wavelengths with increasing loading of PVA in ZnSe:Mn/PVA nanocomposite. PVA acts as a capping agent so when there was increase in PVA loading the particles were capped and hence smaller ZnSe:Mn nanoparticles were obtained. For Electroluminescence (EL) study of ZnSe:Mn/PVA films were deposited onto the conducting glass plates and EL cells were prepared by using aluminum foil as an electrode and conducting glass plate itself acted as second electrode. The EL brightness of the cell with different PVA loading was recorded at various frequencies. EL started at thresh

Electrical Conductivity and Dielectric Constant as Predictors o

P. R. Chaudhari and D. V. Ahire

  • Abstract

    The aim of this study was to evaluate chemical parameters and status of available total primary macronutrients (N+ P+ K), total secondary macronutrients (Ca+Mg) and total micronutrients (Cu+ Fe+ Mn+ Zn) in the soil from its electrical conductivity and dielectric constant. We have collected 8 samples (depth 0 - 15 cm) from different locations in North Maharashtra region. The soils were categorized as loamy sand, sandy loam and clay loam. The soils were analyzed for the chemical properties like organic carbon (OC) content, CaCO3, pH and for status of available nutrients. A pH and Electrical Conductivity of soil samples were measured by Soil Testing Kit. The dielectric constant was measured at C - band microwave frequency 4.5 GHz by using waveguide cell method. The statistical analysis of result shows high degree positive correlation of electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of soil samples wit

A Study on Bhageerath and Bhageerath-H Software Tools

Ch. Lakshmi Padma, Sreedhara R. Voleti, A. Ranganadha Reddy, R.K.Kishore

  • Abstract

    Generally, to know the structure of a protein X-ray crystallography or NMR techniques are followed but in some cases such as Family B GPCRs these techniques are always not successful. So, we opt for the homology modeling techniques. There are their usage, two of those free softwares available in the market are Bhageerath and Bhageerath-H. Study of these two softwares was presented in the paper. Computational tools of SCHRÖDINGER software were used for molecular dynamics studies.

Emissivity and scattering coefficient of tree leaves at 9.5 GHz frequency

D. V. Ahire

  • Abstract

    This study presents the experimental results on the dielectric constant of leaves of two tree species at X- band microwave frequencies 9.5 GHz. Leaves from two different tree species viz., Acacia indica (Babool) and Eucalyptus (Nilgiri) have been used in these measurements. Dielectric constants of these tree leaves have been measured by using Waveguide Cell Method. These values of dielectric constants are used to estimate the emissivity and scattering coefficient of leaves of Babool and Nilgiri having different percentage Moisture Contents (MC %) at various incident angles. Estimations of emissivity are made by using emissivity model and scattering coefficient by perturbation Model. For both, vertical and horizontal polarizations, at constant value of incident angle, emissivity of tree leaves is found to decrease significantly with increase in the values of its MC (%) while their scattering coefficient&nb

Study of dielectric properties for Uttarakhand soils at C-band frequency

D. V. Ahire

  • Abstract

    Performances of the most of sensors used in microwave remote sensing of soils depend on their dielectric properties determined at frequencies in GHz range. The most important parameter needed for this purpose is complex dielectric constant of soil sample. This study presents experimental results on the variation of dielectric constant (ε'), dielectric loss (ε''), a. c. conductivity and relaxation time of six different soil samples with gravimetric moisture content at 5.3 GHz frequency. For all the six soil samples, the dielectric constant (ε') and dielectric loss (ε'') in general, are found to increase with increase in percentage gravimetric Moisture Content (MC %). Further, our results give high degree positive and high degree negative statistical correlation coefficient for a. c. conductivity (σ) and relaxation time (τ) respectively with MC (%) for all the six s

Growth of metal oxide thin films by Pulsed laser deposition- Pe

M. C. Rao

  • Abstract

    A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of photons. Pulsed operation of laser refers to any laser not classified as continuous wave, so that the optical power appears in pulses of some duration at some repetition rate. This encompasses a wide range of technologies addressing a number of different motivations. Pulsed laser deposition is a growth technique in which photonic energy is coupled to the bulk starting material via electronic processes. PLD has normally been done with either solid state or excimer lasers producing milli joule to joule pulse energies with 10 kHz to 10 Hz repetition rates, respectively. Solid state batteries using solid-electrolyte have attractive advantages compared to conventional liquid-electrolyte batteries such as lead-acid batteries or nickel-cadmium cells. PLD is a successful thin film deposition method

Investigation of adulteration in milk samples by Linear and Mas

Chaudhari L.M. and Girase S. B.

  • Abstract

    The linear and mass attenuation coefficient plays an important role in agriculture, industry, science & technology, basic quality, medicines and forensics etc. Milk contains considerable amounts of constituents. For healthy nation, we need quality of food & milk. However, some antisocial elements have been adding some adulterants like water, urea, lactose powder etc. in milk sample. In the present work, we measured the linear and mass attenuation coefficient of adulterate milk sample with urea by using gamma source Na-22 at energy 511 keV and 1280 keV. The experimental values are in good arrangement and then validate absorption low.

Investigation of luminescent properties of Eu3+ activated Sr2CeO4

Pradip Z. Zambare and O. H. Mahajan

  • Abstract

    The phosphors Sr2CeO4: 1.5 mol% Eu3+ was synthesized by solid state reaction method in air at 1200 C. These samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR), and Photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of pure and Eu3+ doped Sr2CeO4 were recorded at room temperature. Sr2CeO4 phosphor was effectively excited around 254 nm and observed a broad emission band peak around 468 nm. XRD data revealed that the structure of Sr2CeO4 is orthorhombic and the mean crystallite size of Sr2CeO4 and Sr2CeO4:1.5 mol. % Eu3+ were 22nm and 90 nm respectively. The color coordinates of Sr2CeO4:1.5 mol. % Eu3+ were x = 0.3434 and y = 0.3351 and CIE coordinates reveale

NO2 - Ion in KI Crystal and its Motional States S. S. Khatri

S. S. Khatri

  • Abstract

    A number of small ions or dipolar impurities in alkali halide single crystals in low concentrations occupy substitutional positions with discrete orientations in the lattice. The tunneling motions of NO2 - ion in KI are quite complex as compared to other alkali halide hosts. A systematic study of different orientational motions of ions in solids leads to better understanding of the properties of solids containing molecular impurities.

An evaluation of energy gap parameters and chemical potential of BCS- BEC Crossover regime

Rajiv Kumar and L. K. Mishra

  • Abstract

    Using the theoretical formalism of C. Regal etal PRL (2004), we have studied the BCS-BEC crossover regime. We have evaluated the value of energy gap parameter and chemical potential for the crossover as a function of dimensionless parameters |KF as|-1 from BCS-theory. Our theoretical result indicates the crossover occurs in the very small region of the parameter -1< |KF as|-1 <1 .Our evaluated results are also in good agreement with other theoretical workers.

Wave Propagation in Compressed Materials with Reinforcement in

Rajneesh Kakar, Manisha Gupta, Mahinder Singh Saroa, Kishan Chand Gupta

  • Abstract

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate analytically the influence of gravity field, initial compression and fiber-reinforcement on surface waves (Love, Stoneley and Rayleigh) in composite materials with fiber-reinforcement in a preferred direction, norma wave propagation technique by harmonic sinusoidal motion and using Helmholtz theory of potentials for displacement vector field to study surface waves i.e. Love, Stoneley and Rayleigh waves in the neighbourhood of the interface of two semi infinite media. In the absence of gravity, initial compression and fiber-reinforcement parameters, results derived completely match with similar classical formulations. Application of harmonic analysis converts role of time factor into the frequency which has an important aspect for nondestructive dynamic testing mechanism. Inferences and analytical observations drawn show wide range of applications in industrial m

A theoretical study and evaluation of temperature dependent mea

Rajkishore Prasad & L. K. Mishra

  • Abstract

    We have studied the dynamics of the collective excitation for a partially condensed harmonic trapped quasi two-dimensional bosonic gas. Using the gapless second-order theory we have evaluated the excitation energy. Our evaluated results for temperature dependent mean-energies show that the Kohn theorem is quite accurately satisfied for temperature T<0.8 Tc. Our theoretically evaluated results are also in good agreement with those of other theoretical workers.

Decomposition of Curvature Tensor Field + R  , in a&

Prateek Mishra, Kaushal Srivastava and S. B. Mishra

  • Abstract

Measurement of photon attenuation coefficient of soil samples at energy 360 keV

Chaudhari L. M and Raje D. V.

  • Abstract

    The attenuation coefficient is an important role in agriculture research as well as in industry, forensic sciences etc. We measured the linear and mass attenuation coefficients of soil samples. The attenuation coefficient usually depends upon the energy of radiations and nature of the material. The result represented in graphical forms. This confirms the interaction of gamma radiations with soil sample of various components.

Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Twisted Triangular Wave

P. R. Chaudhari

  • Abstract

    The twisted waveguides of various cross sections are very useful in building a waveguide system and are required in many communication applications, especially in satellite communications. While designing twisted waveguides it is necessary to take care about exact position of axis and angle of twisting for proper distribution of electric and magnetic fields. So that electromagnetic waves can propagate through waveguide in the desired manner. The problem of propagation of dominant TE mode in twisted waveguide of right isosceles triangular cross-section is analyzed up to sixth order perturbation terms. The helical coordinate system is used for mathematical formulation of the problem and perturbation technique is used in obtaining the solution. The contribution of higher order terms cannot be neglected for accuracy of results. The information about the percentage contribution of higher order terms is worked

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