Vol. 4 & Issue 3 ; Section C : Physical Sciences

Date : May. to Jul.2014


Ultrasonic, Volumetric and Viscometric Study of Aqueous - Electrolyte Solutions

M. Kondaiaha, K. Sreekanthb, Sk.Md. Nayeemc and D. Krishna Raod

  • Abstract

    Ultrasonic velocities, u, densities, ρ and viscosities, η of 0.1 m aqueous tripotassium citrate and trisodium citrate solutions in methanol have been measured over the entire composition range at 308.15 K. From this experimental data, deviation in ultrasonic velocity, u, deviation in isentropic compressibility, ks, excess intermolecular free length, LEf , excess acoustic impedance, ZE, excess molar volume,V Em , excess free volume, VEf, deviation in viscosity, η, and excess Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow, G*E have been determined. It has been observed that ultrasonic velocity and viscosity first increases and attained a maximum value thereafter decreases. Negative values of E Vm , f E V, ks, E f L and positive values of u, ZE, η and G*E are observed ove

Nanocrystalline CoS Thin Films Prepared by Modified Chemical Bath Deposition Method

M. S. Sonawane, S. R. Gosavi and R. S. Patil

  • Abstract

    The modified chemical bath deposition (MCBD) method used to grow Cobalt Sulphide thin films with thickness ~300 nm at room temperature is described. For deposition of CoS thin films, Cobalt Sulphate was used as cationic and sodium bisulphate as anionic precursor in aqueous medium. In modified chemical bath deposition method, substrates are immersed in cations and anions alternatively and film growth takes place on the substrates. The substrate supporting the growing film is rinsed in high purity distilled water after each immersion. Typical growth curves, crystal structure, surface morphology, optical and electrical properties of Cobalt Sulphide films are presented. The structural studies revealed that the CoS films had hexagonal structure with excellent match of the d-values and lattice parameters. The average crystallite size determine using FWHM is in the nano range (~13 nm). Scanning electron microgra

Natural Interval of Monthly Extreme Temperature in the Context of Assam

Dhritikesh Chakrabarty

  • Abstract

    This paper is based on a method of determining the natural intervals of the maximum and the minimum of temperature at a location by the application of the area property of the normal probability distribution discovered by Gauss and on a numerical application the method in determining the natural intervals of monthly maximum temperature and monthly minimum of temperature in the context of Assam.

DFT calculation of Electronic properties, IR spectra, and NMR s

Dhia Hamdi Al-Amiedy, Zeyad Adnan Saleh and Rajaa Khedir Al-Yasari

  • Abstract

    DFT method has been carried out studying pentacene and derivative pentanene (tetrabromopentacene) molecules using the B3LYP functional and the 6-311G(d,p) basis set, the optimization structure, electronic properties such as ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, hardness, softness, and electrophilic, IR spectra, and NMR spectrum. The calculated ionization potential (6.126 eV) and electron affinity (1.417 eV) of this molecule is in a good agreement with experimental values. all properties are calculated by using Gaussian09 program and Gaussian view 5.08 program using density function (DFT) method with basis set B3LYP/6-311G (d,p), while NMR spectrum is computed by ChemBioDraw program.

Isolation, Molecular Structural Estimation and Characterized by

T. Lawrence & S Gunasekaran

  • Abstract

    The present study aimed at isolate the (9-Benzyl-9H-carbazole-3, 6-diyl) bis (2, 1-7ethynediyl-1, 5-cyclohexadien-1-yl-4-ylidene)-dimethanone alkaloid from the plant leaves of Rubus ellipticus. The leaves extract of the plant was evaluated and characterized by fluorescence of FTIR, UV and GCMS spectrum and the molecular structure is confirmed by the experimental values of FTIR, UV values of atomic stretching, possible functional groups and GCMS. The IR wave numbers, m/z and structure are estimated with the calculated measurements of Gaussian (v3), IRPal v2, mass spectrum, application software and Fluorine chemistry for characteristic structure analyses for calculated values. The theoretical vales are used for predict and conformational analysis of structure of the alkaloid and the structure of the alkaloid is confirmed.

Effect of Semiconductors Types on Electron Transmission at Meta

Hadi Jabbar Mujbil Al-Aagealy ,and Mohsin A.,Hassooni

  • Abstract

    A theoretical description of the electron transmission across metal/semiconductor interfaces can be achieved depending on the evaluated of the rate constant. Under this system we suppose two localized quantum states system for donor l􀟮􀮽 􀯘 􀯧 ⟩ and acceptor state l􀟮􀮺 􀯘 􀯧 ⟩ of electrons interacting by the coupling matrix element. The transmission of electrons is relatively to potential barrier at interface between a metal and a semiconductor and the reorientation energies to reorient the system to transfers. The data of electron transfer rate constant evaluated with reorientation energy using a MATLAP program. Theoretical data that obtained for our mode show that the electron transport is more probable in the system have low height potential barrier with decreasing the reorientation energy.

Achievement a standard Energy distribution function of fusion p

Dr. Raad Hammed, Rownaq Qais, Dr. Ali Kadhim

  • Abstract

    The Maxwillain energy distribution in a thermonuclear is achieve by assuming that the reactant mixture of particles of the gases is in a thermodynamic equilibrium and using un improved empirical formula the total fusion cross section that gives an isotropic differential cross section for neutron emission

Extract Empirical Formulae to Determine the Neutron Yield of Cu (P, N) Zn Reactions for (A=62 - 7

Khalid H. Mahdi, Sameera A. Ebrahiem and Raafat Abdul H. Muslim

  • Abstract

    Data were obtained cross-sections in this study of world literature Labs (TENDL-2012) for copper isotopes of (62Cu – 71Cu) to produce Zinc isotopes (62Zn – 71Zn) from Cu(p, n) Zn reactions. In the present work, the cross-section of (p,n) reactions available in theliterature as a function of proton energies for the medium element targets of Cu(p,n) .Znreaction have been rearranged and interpolated for proton energies from (10-50) MeV insteps of 0.5 MeV by using the MATLAB computer program in lab System, The obtained cross-section (mb) were taken into consideration and used to calculate the neutron yield of reactions as a function of proton energies together with the stopping powers whichcalculated from the Zeigler formula by using SRIM-2013 program. We plotted the relationship between the n-yield for these reactions and asymmetry at these energies Was reached as a result of the possibility of finding

LRS Bianchi Type-Ii String Cosmological Models for Stiff and An

Keerti Sharma and Atul Tyagi

  • Abstract

    Some LRS (locally rotationally symmetric) Bianchi type-II string cosmological models in the presence of stiff and anti- stiff fluids are studied. The scalar expansion is assumed to be proportional to the shear. In the present study, we consider two cases (i) and (ii) , where and are the rest energy density and the pressure of the fluid, respectively the physical behavior of these models is also discussed.

A Theoretical Study of Thermo Physical Properties of Carbon Nan

A. K. Mishra, Sobha Rani, S. N. Prasad and L.K. Mishra

  • Abstract

    Using the theoretical formalism of James Homes Science (2000), we have evaluated the temperature dependent specific heat of carbon nanotubes. From our theoretical results, it appears that at high temperature the specific heat of individual nanotubes are similar to that of 2D-graphene. The phonons contribution appears dominated at low temperature where linear T dependence of the specific heat is observed for SWNTs of small diameter<2nm. Our evaluated results are in good agreement with other theoretical workers and also with the experimental data.

On Asymptotic Lines in a Complex Finsler Hypersurface

U.S. Negi

  • Abstract

    Hayden1 has studied Asymptotic lines in a Vm in a Vn. Rund2 has studied the intrinsic and induced curvature theories of subspaces of a Finsler spaces. Again, Rund3- 4have studied Hypersurfaces of Finsler Spaces and the Differential Geometry of Finsler spaces, In this paper, we have defined and studied the asymptotic lines in a Complex Finsler hypersurface and some theorem of asymptotic lines has also been derived.

Radiation Doses to Patients Undergoing Some Selected X-Ray Diagnostic Procedures

Nworgu O.D. and Bamidele L.

  • Abstract

    The level of dose and its distributions in adult patients undergoing seven selected common types of x-ray examination in two public hospitals in Nigeria were investigated using exposure parameters. A total of 224 patients were included in this investigation. The ages of the patients involved were from 18 years to 75 years, while their average weights ranged from 67kg to 73kg. Mean, median, first and third quartiles, and maximum to minimum ratio of Entrance Surface Doses (ESDs) are determined. The results show that for each of the examinations, the individual ESD values were found to be comparable with those from similar studies in Ghana, Sudan and in Nigeria. When compared with establishedinternational reference doses, the mean ESDs were found to be below the reference values, except in chest AP and pelvis AP where the ESDs of 0.47mGy and 12.0mGy were recorded. The value of ESD obtained was validated by direct

I-Fuzzification of Fuzzy Sets

Souriar Sebastian and James Philip

  • Abstract

    In this communication, the authors propose some simple and innovative methods to convert Fuzzy Sets (FSs) into Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets (IFSs). Several methods are available for Intuitionistic-to-Fuzzy and Fuzzy-to-Crisp conversions. M. Ganesh has proposed a method for Crisp-to-Fuzzy conversion. No method is available for Fuzzy-to-Intuitionistic Fuzzy conversion. We make a humble attempt to fill this gap.

Synthesis and Study the Structure and Dialectical properties of

Tariq A. Al-Dhahir, Kareem Ail Jasim, Shatha. H.Mahdi

  • Abstract

    In this paper we studied the effect of Cu-O and Ca-O layers on the crystal structure and electrical properties of Bi2Ba2Can-1CunO2n+4+δ superconductor, synthesized by usual solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the structures are orthorhombic by increasing n (Cu-O and Ca-O layers). It was found that the change of Cu-O and Ca-O layers of all our samples produce a change parameter a, b , c , the ratio of lattice parameters and c/a. we use the A.C electrical conductivity as a function of frequency to find the dielectric constant .It was found that the change in (n) of all our samples produce change in dielectric constant , dielectric loss factor (εr ״) and tangent loss(tanδ) .

Evaluation of the Binding and Excitation Energies in the Nuclear S-D Shell Model Theory

Hadi J. M.AL-Agealy and Hoda Butros

  • Abstract

    We use a theoretical shell-model calculation with a two-body effective interaction derived microscopically from the Wildenthal ,and new universal model-independent interactions in the SD (0s1d) shell USDA and USDB) potential to calculate the binding and excitation energies for 􀬵􀬸S 􀬷􀬴 i16 at Low –Lying. Depending on this model, we calculated the energies by assume 􀬵􀬸S 􀬶􀬼 i14 as inert core with two nucleon out of the core in the 2S1/2 1d3/2 configuration. our results suggest the isospin T=1and T=0 for antisymmetric two particale wave functions .The effective two-body matrix elements are obtained from the Wildenthal ,USDA,and USDB interaction.A Matlab program has been used to employed the calculation of the energies with experimental single particle energies. Our results of the theoretical calculation show a good agreement with the experimental data

Study the Nuclear Properties of (α, n) Reaction to Odd Nuclear Scandium (Z=21)

A. Sameera and A. Noor Mohamed

  • Abstract

    In the present work intermediate elementfor 45Sc (α,n)48Vreaction as well as alpha energy from (7.0)MeV to (45.5)MeV with Q- value and threshold energy are (-2.2405) and(2.440)MeV respectively. And we have been calculated reduced mass, binding energy and packing fraction are (3.6754), (387.8289), and (-912.6530) respectively. The cross section which are published in world libraries (EXFOR, ENDFB- VI) which are calculating in fine step(0.5MeV) by using (Matlab-7.7) program, the more recent to select the suitable energies for reaction of ground state. By using inverse reaction principle also we get high probability to produced 45Sc by bombard 48V by neutron .These cross sections with interval energy (0.5)MeVand the stopping powers calculated from (SIRM 2013) program have been used to calculate the neutron yield for45Sc(α,n)48V reaction .

Fractal Deposits on Limestones Due To Diffusion Limited Aggregation

Chishty S.Q. Mazhar Farooqui ,Rajeshaikh B.B. and Mohd. Khizar

  • Abstract

    Fractal geometry deals with the study of irregular shapes to understand the pattern formation, a model known as diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) was introduced in 1981. In this process the particle in random motion gets aggregated becomes a part of the cluster, hence producing the fractal shape. Computer simulations are available to compare this model .An experiment is performed using limestone. When copper sulphate solution is poured inside the layers of limestone after few months some mineral deposits like fossil found on its surface. We studied these shapes using the technique of fractal dimensions and compared them with the DLA and successfully analyzed the shapes. Fractal dimensions are calculated which indicates that deposits are due to DLA.

Thermal Properties of Laser Ablated LiMn2O4 Thin Films

M. C. Rao

  • Abstract

    LiMn2O4is one among the prominent electrode materials for secondary lithium ion battery.LiMn2O4with cubic spinel structure has attracted a great deal of attention due to its advantages like low cost, abundance of manganese in earth crust, environmental harmlessness and high theoretical lithiation capacity (~148 mAh/g). The synthesis of these compounds in thin film form is of great interest as a result of their possible use as a binder free positive electrode in all solid state microbatteries to power microelectronics. Pulsed laser deposition has been widely recognized as a very promising, versatile and efficient method for the deposition of metal oxide thin films. In particular, it has been successfully employed for the deposition of simple and complex metal oxide materials with desired composition, structure, physical and chemical properties. Hence in the present study thin films of LiMn2O4 were prepared by pulsed laser

Ablation of solids by Femtosecond Lasers: Potential applications

M. C. Rao

  • Abstract

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid expansion of research on nanofabrication technologies towards tailoring artificial materials with desired nanostructures. Bottom-up approaches, focusing on weak and reversible non-covalent interactions between molecules seek to have small, usually at molecular level, components built up into complex assemblies, while top-down approaches aim at creating nanoscale devices from bulky materials. Although bottom-up approaches are feasible to produce two and three dimensional structures at low cost, it still could not accommodate the increasing demand of structural complexity. Given that appropriate parallel processing strategies are discovered, a top-down technology may find broader usage in manufacturing structurally complex and functionally advanced devices. Laser modification of semiconductors has been an area of intensive applied and fundamental research for over three decades. Research has been partially motivated by the possibility of laser appli

Effects of Polarity on the probability of Electron Transfer Reactions at Water/Oil Interfac

Hadi J., M., AL-Agealy and Adil Ali Al-Saadi

  • Abstract

    The focus of this work includes a theoretical study to the effect of the polarity on the probability of transition of electrons at the water/oil interface depending on semi-quantum theory. The energy of reorganization Eo(eV) for the electron transfer should be effected on the transport probabilities of rate constant KET(SEC-1)at water/oil system and the rate constant are large for system with large polarity function and increases with increases of the reorganization energy. A different type of oil has been clearly shown to influence on the probability of electron transfer, all these results are very important to address future investigations in the water-oil interaction field. Data result of calculation of the rate constant of electron transfer show that the probability of transition is increasing with increases polarity and reorganization energy and vice versa.

A Theoretical Design of Plasma Focus and its Achievements

R. I. Morad, M. K. Jassim, R. H. Majeed

  • Abstract

    A theoretical designed plasma focus device is achieved using the mathematical Lee Code model. The effect of changing the pressure is upon the global parameters are studied. A well comparison with working standard plasma focus is done, and the designed plasma focus reflects a wide compatible behavior well as with the standard plasma focus. Moreover, the designed plasma focus produced higher neutron yield than standard plasma focus.

An Evaluation of Frequency and Temperature Dependent Effective Surface Reactance Xs,Eff of Differ

Md Shabbir Ahmad, Afaque Anzer and L. K. Mishra

  • Abstract

    Microwave properties of a bilayer structure made of high temperature superconductor (YBCO) and ferromagnetic material LSMO have been evaluated using theoretical formalism of T. Nurgaliev, O. G. Vendik and C-J Wu & Y. J. chen. We have evaluated the frequency and temperature dependent effective surface reactance Xs,eff varying the film thickness of YBCO and keeping LSMO thickness fixed and vice versa. Our theoretical results indicate that the thickness of YBCO is more important than LSMO layer.

Mechanical Properties of Concrete Containing Waste Rubber Particles

Ataria Robert Bennett

  • Abstract

    Due to the environmental issues associated with the disposal of scrap tires from cars and trucks, the need to device means of recycling these solid wastes is deemed necessary. In this study, some of the mechanical properties of hardened concrete containing shredded tires of vehicles are investigated. These shredded tires were used to replace the 20mm size coarse mineral aggregates in concrete. For the purpose of this research, 5%, 10% and 15% in volume of theses shredded tires were used to replace the coarse mineral aggregates in concrete. The rubberized concrete exhibited a lower unit weight compared to the plain concrete. Prism specimens of size 15cm by 15cm by 30cm were fabricated and cured for 28 days based on the British standardof testing. The uniaxial compression test conducted shows a significant reduction in both the compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity of the rubberized concrete. From visual inspection, the failure of the rubberized concrete is gentle a

Examination of Radioactive Contamination and Their Transfer in the Soil-Plant System

Khalid H. Mahdi,Rajiha.R.Mahmoud, Adawiya M. Alwan

  • Abstract

    The background radioactivity of environmental Al Rashidiyah site was determined by measuring the radioactivity for 238U, 232Th, 40 K, and 137Cs radioactivity in soil and plant using highly parity germanium (HPGe) detector with a closed end-coaxial Canberra P-type (model GC4018) 3"×3" with a relative efficiency of (≥40%) and Resolution ≤1.8keV for the energy1.33MeV of 60Co radioactive calibration source. The measurements and sampling procedure cover (8) positions from different parts of Al Rashidiyah site, it can be seen that the highest activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 237Cs in the soil were found to be 22.1±1, 21.2±1.2, 1325±54.8 and 10.5±0.6 Bq.kg-1, respectively. Conversely, the lowest activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 237Cs were found to be 12.3±0.7, 8.2±1, 226.3±15.3 and 1.5±0.2 Bq.kg-

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