Vol. 5 & Issue 3 ; Section C : Physical Sciences

Date : May to July 2015

 

A Theoretical Study of Magnetized Strongly Coupled Plasma and Evaluation of Variation of Plasma Parameter with Rotation Frequency Ω in Dusty Plasma

Damodar Singh,  G. P. Gadkar and L. K. Mishra

  • Abstract

    In this paper, using theoretical formulation of M. Bonitz et al.5 we have theoretically studied magnetized strongly coupled plasma in which the interaction energy exceeds the kinetic energy. This plasma plays an important role in many astrophysical and laboratory systems including compact stars, laser plasma and dusty plasma. They exhibit many unusual collective and transport properties. Our theoretical results show that the Langevin dynamics simulations confirm the scaling of the plasma parameter in a finite system. We have obtained the variation of plasma parameter with rotation frequency Ω in the bulk system. Our obtained theoretical results are in good agreement with the other theoretical workers.

Which has greater impact on linear fixation apparatus rigidity: closer insertion of screws or lower  fixation of a connecting rod? Computer analysis using finite elements

Povilas Masionis, Valentinas Uvarovas MD, Giedrius Petryla, Tomas Sveikata, Igoris Šatkauskas

  • Abstract

    Despite long history of the use of external fixation, this treatment method remains a primary choice in cases of severe trauma when internal fixation is contraindicated. It is clear that combination of lower fixation of a connecting rod and closer insertion of pins provide the stiffest fixation. However, it is unclear which of these two features has the greatest impact on external fixation device rigidity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of the connecting rod height and the distance between screws to external device biomechanical properties. Our null hypothesis was that closer insertion of screws and lower fixation of a connecting rod has the same impact on linear fixation device strength. To investigate this matter, we conducted a finite element study on simple linear monoplanar external fixation device. Various external fixator configurations (which were different in the conne

Characteristic Behaviour of Weakly Nonlinear Quantum Dust Ion – Acoustic Waves

M. K. Jassim

  • Abstract

    The quantum hydrodynamic in one dimensional model of three species in the limit of small mass ratio of the charge carriers is considered to study the nonlinear quantum dust ion – acoustic waves. By adopting equation of state that has zerotemperature, Fermi gas for the electrons and by appropriate normalizing of the variables, a non – dimensional parameter He𝑒 proportional to quantum diffraction effects is identified. It is shown that the quantum plasma supports waves described by a deformed Korteweg – de Vries equation in the weakly nonlinear limit. The work includes studying various parameters that affect the quantum dust ion – acoustic wave and graphically demonstrate the deformation.

A theoretical study of BEC (Bose-Einstein condensate) in one dimensional optical lattice and evaluation of ground state properties of a BEC in 1D lattice

Mini Sinha, Pradhan Durga Shanker Prasad & L. K. Mishra

  • Abstract

    In this paper, we have studied the ground state properties of BEC in a 1Doptical lattice and derived an expression for Ekin Epot   Econt  and Edip  using a given set of parameters  z, N, a, ρ, ω, ω, (Total number of particles, radial trapping frequency, axial trapping frequency and s-wave scattering length) with the help of variational calculation having Gaussian shaped BEC. We have compared our theoretical results with the well known results for ground state properties of BEC in 3D-optical lattice and also BEC for trapped bosons. Our calculated results match with the predictions of these results and also with other theoretical workers.

Automatic Energy Conservation System in Bulk Public Domains

Arghyadeep Majumder

  • Abstract

    Huge electricity is used in bulk public domains like college, offices, government departments, etc. In the meantime (Working hours are generally in daytime from 10:00 am to 5:00 pm) Light, Fan, AC is used most but sometime unnecessary light, fan, AC’s are running when nobody is in the room or even after office hours these equipments are still remain ON till late night or next morning. This microprocessor automatic system is used to control the usage of electricity as per need & working hours.

Propagation of Electron -Acoustic Solitary Waves in Unmagnetized Plasma with Two-Temperature Kappa-Distributed Electrons

Sona Bansal

  • Abstract

    The nonlinear electron-acoustic localized structures in collisionless & unmagnetized plasma consisting of “cool” inertial electrons, “hot” electrons having a kappa distribution, & stationary ions is studied. By use of the reduction perturbation method, a nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived & the propagation of EAW is analyzed, where the superthermal parameter is found to be of significant importance. It is shown that the presence of Kappa-distributed superthermal electrons enhances the critical wave number of the modulational instability of EAWs. Due to the presence of the superthermal electrons, EAWs are stable on a vaster region. Moreover, the modulational instability growth rate is lower for a larger population of superthermal electrons. Further, it is shown that increasing values of the relative density ratio α = nho/nco shifts

Electrical Properties of Electrical Properties  of Tin Sulphide Thin Films

Ikhlas H. Shallal

  • Abstract

    In this study, SnS thin films were deposited onto glass substrate by thermal evaporation technique at 300K temperature. The SnS films have been prepared with different thicknesses (100,200 &300) nm. The crystallographic analysis, film thickness, electrical conductivity, carrier concentration, and carrier mobility were characterized. Measurements showed that depending on film thickness. The D.C. conductivity increased with increase in film thickness from 3.720x  10-5 (Ω.cm)-1 for 100 nm thickness to 9.442x10-4 (Ω.cm)-1for 300 nm thicknesses, and the behavior of activation energies, hall mobility, and carrier concentration were also studied

Effect of Film Thickness on Structural and Optical Properties of Bi2Te3 Thin Films

 

G. D. Deshmukh,  S. M. Patil,  S. S. Patil, and  P. H. Pawar

  • Abstract

    Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) thin films of different thicknesses were thermally deposited onto well cleaned glass substrate. The selected samples were annealed at 423 K for 30 min in vacuum and used for the characterization. The deposition conditions like pressure, distance of the substrate and rate of deposition were maintained same, throughout the experiment. X-ray diffraction shows that the grown films are polycrystalline with rhombohedral crystal structure with strong orientation of the crystallites along (1010) direction for all thicknesses. It was found that the grain size of the films increases with increase in film thickness and has values from 31.2 nm to 32.8 nm. The surface morphology was studied from FESEM and the EDAX analysis showed that the films are stoichiometric. The optical properties of all the films with different thicknesses (500 – 3000 Ao) were st

Self-Fluxing Surfacing Ferrous Alloy

I.K. Beysembetov, B.K. Kenzhaliev, V.G. Mironov, G.T. Shilov, Z.B. Ilmaliev, K.R. Omurbekova

  • Abstract

    The article contains data on the research and development of self-fluxing surfacing ferrous powder and production specifications for apilot batch of surfacing powder designed for the reconditioning of critical components of various equipment and parts of machinery and mechanisms of miscellaneous purpose in transport and power engineering industrial sectors. The new self-fluxing surfacing ferrous powder alloy for gas powder surfacing was produced with the use of mechanochemical method.

Ludwig-Soret Effect on the Heat and Mass Transfer of Slippery Walters Fluid

Rakesh Kumar

  • Abstract

    The present paper investigates analytically the effect of Ludwig-Soret on heat and mass transfer of a general unsteady hydromagnetic, free convective flow of Walter’s fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate. The influences of rotation, heat generation/absorption and rarefaction are also taken into account. The solutions of the governing equations are obtained in the closed form. The significant effects of the various pertinent parameters of the present problem have been calculated numerically; and discussed through graphs and tables. The most appealing observation is that the fluctuations appear near the plate due to the presence of heat source/sink and elastic elements as well as the free convection currents and Ludwig-Soret Number. The results so obtained may be further utilized to verify the validity of the numerical solutions for more complicated problems of Walters fluid flows.

Investigation the Effect of Thickness on Hall Effect Measurements of Fe2O3 Thin Films

Zainab T. Abdulhamied and Sameer Atta Makki

  • Abstract

    In this research the influence of different thickness (200, 300, 400, and 500) nm on Hall effect measurements were made on the films of Iron Oxide (Fe2O3), these films had been prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis deposition method on glass substrates at temperature (673±20) K. Hall mobility and the carrier concentration are investigated and calculated as function of thickness The Hall Effect measurements show all films prepared are (p-type) and both Hall mobility and concentration of the charge carriers increase with the increasing thickness.

Investigation the Cross Sections of 10B by Least Squares Polynomial Method

Dheyaa A. Nasrallah and Bushra J. Hussein

  • Abstract

    This paper suggested a robust statistical evaluation method, of existing experimental cross sections data of 10B in the energy range starting from threshold energy for induced neutrons in the 10B thick target element, to estimate the cross sections for the nuclear reactions. The result of a statistical analysis data in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) like EXFOR and ENDF Libraries, performed with a weighted Least-Squares orthogonal polynomial fitting computer programmer are presented in the form of point-wise cross section values,0.01mb,together with three uncertainties and in the form of graphs of the fitted curves using three kinds of weighted average (the absolute error, the weight mean error, and the sum error).An estimate of the adopted values the weighted average cross sections and their respective uncertainties are also given. 

Determine the Number of Charges That Accumulated on a Surface of PMMA By Using Ion Mirror Effect

Muayyed Jabar Zoory, Intehaa Ahmed Mohammed, Bahaa Jawad Alwan

  • Abstract

    In this work the poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) material is chosen to be a case study to be studied by works Scanning Electron Microscope\Focus Ion Beam (SEM\FIB). Each experiment is performed on a virgin sample of cleaning carefully PMMA material. At a fixed working distance (WD). Her we present a mathematical description of the charging process, trapped ions and consequently mirror effect. Although this is based on simple concepts of electrostatics, a good agreement with experimental results is found.An however, we present experimentaltheoretical investigation to determine the number of ions accumulated on the PMMA surface, as the most important factor in producing ion mirror effect images. Two different procedures (Magnification Factor Method and Disappearing Method) are followed to determine the number of ions accumulated at the PMMA surface, with comparable results.

An Inventory Model for Deteriorating Items with Permissible Delay in Payments

Vandana Malviya1 and  Vijay Kr. Agarwal

  • Abstract

    For different types of inventory systems there has always been the need of mathematical model which can provide satisfactory answer to the problem, about how much to order and at what time the order should be placed. For different inventory systems different models are applicable. One of such model has been discussed in this paper. Deterioration has been taken into account in the study of the model discussed herein. We have taken exponentially decay rate. This type of model is generally related with the items like photographic films, electronic items and fruits. We defined notations and assumptions for the development of model. Then the mathematical formulations derived under two different possibilities, one when credit facility is such that the time given to the buyer is more than the time cycle of inventory, and one in which this time is less than the time cycle of inventory. Numerical example is demons

Study of Structural and Optical Properties of Thermally Evaporated Virgin CdSe Thin Films

S.S.Patil, G.D.Deshmukh and P.H.Pawar

  • Abstract

    CdSe thin films of different thicknesses on glass substrates have been synthesized by thermal evaporation technique at room temperature in vacuum (≈10-5 Torr). The selected virgin samples of five different thicknesses were used for characterization. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of these CdSe samples with five different thicknesses were recorded by X-ray diffractometer. The XRD patterns exhibits nanocrystalline as well as polycrystalline nature showing zinc blende structure with a preferential orientation along the (111) plane of cubic phase. The degree of such a preferred orientation was found to increase with film thickness. The lattice parameter (a), crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ) and strain (ε) were calculated. SEM images shows whitish spherical nano size particles of about 80 to 100 nm randomly spread all over the film surface. The reflectance and transmittance spectra of these samples were recorded using double beam spectrophotometer i

Particulate Couette Flow with Volume Fraction ofDust Particles

Rakesh Kumar

  • Abstract

    The present problem considers the two dimensional laminar flow of an electrically conducting viscous incompressible fluid embedded with non-conducting identical spherical particles through a long channel under the influence of pulsatile pressure gradient taking volume fraction of dust particles into account. The lower plate of the channel is kept stationary and the upper plate is oscillating in time and magnitude with frequency of oscillations. A uniform magnetic field is applied transverse to the planes of the plates. The method of perturbation is used to derive exact solutions for the fluid and particle velocities and the skin-friction on the walls. Numerical computations are presented through graphs to show the effects of various parameters involved in the problem. 

Central Tendency of Annual Extremum of Ambient Air Temperature at Guwahati

Dhritikesh Chakrabarty

  • Abstract

    An analytical method has been developed for determining the true value of the central tendency of each of annual maximum and annual minimum of ambient air temperature at a location. Also, the value of central tendency of each of annual maximum and annual minimum of ambient air temperature at Guwahati has been determined by applying the method developed here from the data since the year 1969 onwards. Determination of these two values is based on the assumption that change in temperature over years during the period for which data are available occurs due to chance cause only but not due to any assignable cause. The values of these two have been found to be 37.2 Degree Celsius and 7.4 Degree Celsius respectively. Moreover, it has been found that the central tendency of annual minimum of the ambient air temperature at Guwahati cannot be less than 7.252 Degree Celsius and greater than 7.636 Degree Celsius.

A Theoretical Study of Structure Factor S (Q, Ω) forthe S-Wave and D-Wave Pairings in Imbalanced D-Wave Super Fluids in BCS-BEC Crossover Regime at Finite Temperature

Manisha Roy , Shayam deo Yadav  and L. K. Mishra3

  • Abstract

    Using the theoretical formalism of J. Tempere et al. (Phys. Rev.B72, 2008), we have studied the imbalanced d-wave super fluids in the BCS-BEC cross over regime at finite temperature. We have theoretically evaluated excitation energy of gas of interacting fermions and the Structure factor S (q, ω) for s-wave and d-wave scattering keeping scattering potential parameter k0 and k1fixed.Our investigations of the Structure factor reveals that for d-wave scattering the damping of the pole for S (q, ω) is very small in the BCS regime in contrast to that for the s-wave pairing. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers. 

A theoretical study of Imblanced d-wave super fluids in BCS-BEC crossover regime and evaluation of critical temperature as a function of inverse scattering length for different values of d-wave scattering parameters

Manisha Roy, Shayam deo Yadav and L. K. Mishra

  • Abstract

    Using the theoretical formalism of J. Tempere etal.(Phys. Rev. 2008), we have studied the imbalanced d-wave super fluids in the BCS-BEC cross over regime. We have theoretically evaluated the critical temperature Tc and saddle-point critical temperature T* as a function of inverse scattering length for different values of d-wave scattering potential parameter k0 and k1. We observe that in BCS limit TC=T* and in BEC limit TC<<T*. We also observe that in BCS regime d-wave pairing is more robust in the presence of population imbalance than s-wave case. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers. 

An Exact Solution of Span-wise Fluctuating MHD FreeConvective Heat and Mass Transfer Flow past a Vertical Porous Plate with Heat Source and Soret Effect in Slip Flow Regime

Khem Chand, Rakesh Kumar and Sapna

  • Abstract

    An exact solution of span wise fluctuating magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) convective flow problem of a viscous, incompressible and electrically conducting fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate in slip flow regime is obtained. The plate is subjected to span wise cosinusoidally varying spices concentration and temperature. A magnetic field of uniform strength is applied perpendicular to the plane of the plate. Also plate is subjected to constant suction and heat source. The partial differential equations governing the flow are solved exactly under the prescribed boundary conditions for the velocity, temperature and spices concentration field. The velocity, temperature, concentration and the skin friction, Nusselt number, Sherwood number in terms of their amplitudes and phase angles have been expressed graphically to observe the effects of different flow parameters. The final results are discussed in

The Used Raw Clay in Composite of Electrode Fabricate for Super capacitor

Mustafa A. Ibrahim, Abdilrida. S. Hasaani and Hussein. Kh. Rasheed

  • Abstract

    Super capacitor play important role in recent industry, therefore, when that got in easy method, little cost and with material available in anywhere, that is assure important of that super capacitor fabricated from ratio raw clay with ratios ZnO and active carbon, via separator LDPE the crystalline which available in shopping as carrying bag of thickness 1μm. The test method of chooses the best ratio of composite by used resonance frequency, and observed the ratio of group raw clay 30%, with ratios ZnO 5% and active carbon 65% has been the better composite of recorder capacitance 88F with lowest impedance 0.015Ω. Therefore when, the used charge-discharge test of this super capacitor, is recorder 3F of discharge time 1800s.

Synthesis and Characterisation of Nanocrystalline ZnO - Core Shell Thin Films

P.E. Agbo, P.A. Nwofe, V. Anigbogu

  • Abstract

    Nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) core shell thin films comprising of zinc oxide/manganese oxide (ZnO/MnO), and zinc oxide/cadmium oxide (ZnO/CdO) thin films were successfully grown using the solution growth technique. The compositional, structural and optical properties of the films were investigated. Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) techniques were employed to study the composition of the core-shell thin films. The structural characterisation was done using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Optical spectroscopy was used to investigate the transmittance, absorbance and reflectance versus wavelength measurement and hence deduce some important optical constants. The results show that the refractive index was in the range 1.23 – 1.35. The energy band gap was found to be direct and ≤ 3.3 eV, with higher values obtained for the zinc oxide/cadmium oxide core shell thin films.

Synthesis and Characterization of Hg1-x CdxBa2Ca2Cu3O8+δ thin film Superconductors prepared by DC Sputtering

Bushra K.H.Al-Maiyaly, Shatha Hashim Mahdi, Kareem Ali Jasim ,Mohammad HadyMahdi, Nibrass Tahseen Abdul.Hameed ,

  • Abstract

    Mercury-cadmium base Superconductors with formula Hg1-x Cdx Ba2 Ca2 CuO8+δ with (x=0.1, 0.2 and 0.25) thin films have been prepared on glass substrate at R.T (300 K) with 178 nm thickness using DC sputtering technique by two step, the first step (bulk) by solid state reaction processes and the second step thin film. The influences of Cd content on the structural and optical properties were investigated. Structural analysis results from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) techniques indicate that all samples are polycrystalline of multiphase with tetragonal structure and have a grain size of (80-45) nm. It was found that the increasing of the cd content ratio in samples produce changes on the lattice constant, volume fraction (Vphase),grain size. The transmission and absorptions spectrum of these

Nonlinear Convection Due to Exponentially Shrinking Sheet through Porous Media: An Analytical Solution

Rakesh Kumar

  • Abstract

    This article reports the effects of porous medium, mixed convection parameter and nonlinear convection parameter on the flow of viscous fluid over an exponentially shrinking sheet. The influences of suction and heat source/sink are also considered. Mathematically suitable variables are introduced to convert the governing system of coupled non-linear differential equations into self-similar form. The reduced differential equations are solved to obtain a closed form solution. The physical interpretations of the results have been discussed through the plotted graphs. It is found that the porous media, heat source/sink and nonlinear convection considerably affect the flow and heat transfer over the surface of the exponentially shrinking sheet. 

Nonlinear Convection towards an Exponentially Shrinking Sheet

Rakesh Kumar

  • Abstract

    A theoretical analysis has been carried out to examine the effect of suction parameter, mixed convection parameter and nonlinear convection on the flow of viscous fluid over an exponentially shrinking sheet. The influence of heat source/sink is also considered. The governing differential equations are transformed into the ordinary differential equations by using the exponential form of the similarity transformations. Then the reduced differential equations are solved to obtain a closed form solution. The physical features of the flow parameters are analyzed with the help of graphs. It is found that the suction parameter, heat source/sink and nonlinear convection considerably affect the flow and heat transfer over the surface of the exponentially shrinking sheet.

A theoretical study of mutual coupling of two Semiconductor Quantum Dots via an optical Nanocavity and evaluation of spectral function of the system

Shyam Prakash Verma, Uday Narayan Singh & L. K, Mishra

 

  • Abstract

    Using the theoretical formalism of A. Lauchet etal (Phys. Rev 82B, 075305 (2010)) and Hyochul Kim etal (Optics Express, 19, 2589 (2011)), we have theoretically studied a system consisting of two spatially separated self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots coupled to optical nano cavity mode. We observe that due to their different size and compositional profiles, the two quantum dots exhibit markedly different DC Stark effects. We have evaluated the spectral function of the system both as a function of applied bias voltages and also as a function of energy. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers.

Hybrid IDM Algorithm for PIV

Jan Novotný and Jiří Nožička

  • Abstract

    The accuracy of the measurements using PIV method is largely dependent not only on the quality of the measured data, but also on the method of evaluation of seeding particle displacement. Our work deals with the modification of nowadays already standard algorithm based on mutual deformation of individual images and combines this algorithm with a common iterative scheme that uses mutual integer displacement of particular investigated areas. Our designed and tested algorithm enables the user to increase the accuracy of the measured data, while the computation time necessary for the analysis is not increased in order. The article describes in detail the procedure of designing and testing of the final algorithm. In order to test the suitability of particular algorithms, it was first necessary to generate synthetic data with a known displacement and of adequate quality. Apart from modifying the classical itera

Theoretical Study of the Energy Levels for 30P15 Using Nuclear Shell Model

Ehmed Musa Shweikh and Ayoub Taleb

  • Abstract

    The focus of this paper is on the investigation and the understanding of the nuclear structure of 30P15 nuclei using shell model calculation. A two-body matrix elements' interaction  erived for the USD, USDA, and USDB to describe the interaction the nucleons at (2S1/2 1d3/2)) configuration space for 30P15 nuclei. According to this model, we evaluation the binding and excitation energies with assume two nucleon one proton and one neutron out the closed inert core of 28Si14. Results data are fulfillment depending on the selection rule of angular momentum and the isospin T=1and T=0 for antisymmetric wave functions for nucleons. The interaction of the nucleus out the closed core describes by Reid potential and new universal potential. A result has been employed using a Matlab program to evaluate the energy levels

Numerical simulation of charge transport in a single layer of Tris- (8- hydroxyquinoline) aluminum sandwiched between two electrodes

MohsenBahrami, Ezeddin Mohajerani

  • Abstract

    The charge transport in amorphous films of tris- (8- hydroxyquinoline) aluminum is studied numerically by means of the master equation method. For the sake of simplicity, and given that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is spread over an 8-hydroxyquinoline ligand on the basis of the density function theory; we consider this extension as a disc-shaped area. When taking the LUMO expansion into account, the calculation results are found to be more compatible with the experiment than when the LUMO expansion is overlooked. Moreover, it is shown that there is an optimal configuration for 8-hydroxyquinoline ligands in a layer, which has the best compatibility with the experiment.

Theoretical Study of Probability of Electron Transfer at Nano Electron Device

Hadi Jabbar Mujbil Al-Aagealy, Adil Ali Mansoor and Mohsin A.Hassooni

  • Abstract

    The focus of this paper is on the study and calculates the transition probability of electron transfer at the metal/semiconductor Nano devices system depending on the quantum consideration. Two localized quantum vector states system l 𝜑𝐷𝑒𝑡⟩ and𝜑𝐴𝑒𝑡⟩interacting with each other at interface. The interacting described by the coupling matrix element. The transition probability of the electron transfer can able to election the suitable device using in nanotechnology science applied. Probabilities of transition rate constant have been evaluated due to the reorganization energy using a MATLAB program. Theoretical data for our two systems show that the probability of electron transport is more probable with decreasing the reorganization energy.

Radon Concentration and its Doses in Dwellings of Baghdad City and In Dora Refinery Using Nuclear Track Detector (CR-39)

Dr. Khalid H. Mahdi , Hadeel G. Ishnayyin., Lina M. Haider

  • Abstract

    Indoor radon has long been recognized as a potential health hazard for mankind. Passive integrated solid state nuclear track detectors were used to study the indoor radon-222 concentrations in 10 houses in Baghdad city and in a Dora refinery for a worker in it. The influence of some factors like type of building materials, geometrical shape of the measurement place, the position of the house, ect, on indoor radon concentration was studied. The measurement of the indoor radon concentration obtained in the house the ranged from (7.150 to13. 954 bq/m3), which is lower than these median values (46 bq m-3), that reported by unscear 2000. And for Dora refinery highest concentration was (50.191 bq/m3) in sample 5d-1 and low was (19.808 bq m-3) in sample 4d-2 an average activity value (22.860 bq m-3) .These results are higher than these median values, the ann

Interaction Praseodymium with Charge Particle (Alpha particle)

Sameera A. Ebrahiem and Sameer H. Al khalidi 

  • Abstract

    In this study, the cross-sections of (α, n) reaction available in the literature as a function of Alpha energies for the high element target such as 141Pr59 (αlpha, n) 144Pm61 reaction. The Q-value is (-10.2455685 MeV) and threshold energy is (10.5362MeV) in the ground state .The cross section has been rearranged, spline and interpolated for alpha particle energies from (15.9 to 44.3)MeV in fine steps of (0.2 MeV). By using SRIM-2013 program, the stopping power has been recalculated by using fitting and interpolated for alpha particle energy. The cross sections together with the stopping powers have been calculated neutron yield for 141Pr59 (αlpha, n) 144Pm61 reaction .The aim of the pre

Radioactivity Measurement of 238U, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs in soil of AL-Amara city - Missan governorate-Iraq

Khalid H. Mahdi AL-Ubaidi , Rajiha R. Mahmoud , Zahraa A. AL Saudany

  • Abstract

    The activity of the radionuclides namely 238U, 232Th ,40K and 137Cs are measured in soil samples collected from different locations of AL-Amara city- Missan governorate-Iraq.Using HPGe detector, based on high-resolution gamma and an energy resolution of (≤1.8 keV) for the 133 MeV gamma transition of 60Co. The range of concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs in the samples varies from(9.659±0.733-34.912±5.611)Bq/kg, (11.714±1.287-21.337±1.588) Bq/kg, (212.953±13.071-471.154±22.871) Bq/kg and (B.D.L 3.940±0.393) Bq/kg with overall mean values of18.882±2.138 Bq/kg, 16.313±1.468 Bq/kg, 69.025±19.447 Bq/kg and 0.896±0.23Bq/kg, respectively.The radium equivalent rate (Raeq) calculated from concentration of 238U, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs ranges between (48.757- 91.420) Bq/kg with mean value 70.625 Bq/kg.The absorbed dose Rate (Dγ) for the soil samples in the study area ranges from (23.046 -43.879) nGy/h with an average value of 33.965 nGy/h. The annual effective dose rate (AED) in range (0.113-0.215) (mSv/y) with an average value of 0.166(mSv/y). The annual effective dose rate (AED) out range (0.028-.053) (mSv/y) with an average value of 0.041 (mSv/y). The internal hazard index (Hin) range 0.165-0.319) with an average value of 0.241.The external hazard index (Hex) range (0.131-0.246) with an average value of 0.190.The gamma Index (Iγ) range (0.364-0.690) with an average value of 0.534.The values of the specific activity of (238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs), radium equivalent activity, indoor and outdoor annual effective dose rates, internal and external hazard indices, and gamma index, all were found to be lower than their corresponding allowed limits.

A Theoretical Evaluation of Eigen Values as a Function of Applied Bias Voltage of Two Qds When they are tuned into the Exact Resonance with one Another.

Shyam Prakash Verma, Uday Narayan Singh & L. K. Mishra

  • Abstract

    Using the theoretical formalism of A. Lauchet etal (Phys. Rev 82B, 075305 (2010), we have theoretically studied a system consisting of two spatially separated selfassembled InGaAs quantum dots coupled to optical nano cavity mode. We observe that due to their different size and compositional profiles, the two quantum dots exhibit markedly different DC Stark effects. We theoretically evaluated the eigenvalues of two QDs as a function of applied bias voltage when they are tuned into exact resonance with one another. We have presented the evaluated results of eigenvalues of (three branches of the double anticrossing of the two QDs) when they are detuned from the mode, λ0 (upper panel) λ1 (middle panel) λ2 (bottom panel). The evaluation has been performed with the help of equation (5). These results indicate the exact evolution of three branches as a function of Vapp. Our theoretical results indicate that eigenvalue is lowest in λ0 panel and largest in λ2 panel as a function of Vapp. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers.

Calculation of the Reduced Transition Probabilities M (E2) for even-even Tungsten nuclide (74W)) A=180-186)

Dr. Sameera A. Ebrahiem, Shaimaa A. Abass, Saja A. Ahmed, Nebras T. Abd-Al-Hameed

  • Abstract

    In the present work, By using the half life time for (W – 74) isotopes for eveneven from Ferston we calculated the electric quadruple transition and find the relation between number of neutron and M (E2) |2 w.u↓ for gamma ray from 2+ to 0+ .By using MATLAB program we find empirical formula for these relation and compare these data with global. The calculated reduced transition probabilities B (E2) e2b2 ↑ values are comparaed with that of experimental and theoretical predications for 74W nuclide listed and plotted and compares with SSANM and FRDM and with Experimental values of Global.

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