Vol. 5 & Issue 4 ; Section C : Physical Sciences

Date : Aug. to Oct.2015

 

The effects of Magnetohydrodynamics on the Peristaltic flow of fourth grade fluid in an inclined channel with permeable walls

N. L. Bhikshu, M. V. Ramana Murthy, Y. V. K. Ravi Kumar , S. Sreenadh

  • Abstract

    We investigate the effects of an induced magnetic field on the peristaltic flow of fourth grade fluid is an inclined channel with permeable walls. The flow is investigated in a wave frame of reference moving with velocity of the wave. Low Reynolds number and long wave length assumption are used to simplify highly non-linear partial differential equations. The reduced non-linear partial differential equations are solved with the help of regular perturbation method. Effects of various parameters of interest on pumping characteristics is discussed through graphs.

Synthesis of ZnO Nanoribbons, Nanorods, and Nanoballs by Vapor Transport Process Assisted by Electronic Control

B. González Rolón and L. A. Vera Salas

  • Abstract

    We developed a growth process deposited onto metallic substrates using avapor transport system to produce nanoribbons, nanorods, and nanoballs of crystalline ZnO. We performed the synthesis in a reactor adapted to a mechanism specifically developed to digitally control the temperature, flow, and pressure of the tube_s internal conditions. The structural properties and composition of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphology of as-prepared products was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the formation of a ZnO phase, exhibiting hexagonal growth morphology similar to the Wurtzsite (B4) structure (space group P63mc) for nanoribbons, nanorods, and nanoballs. We demonstrated that the growth of these nanostructures is defined by the control of the physical variables involved in the Vapor Transport Process, which has a substantial effect on their morphologies. 

Energy Harvesting using Piezoelectric assembly; Performance comparison on plain and inclined roads

Payal Wadhwa, Malika Kaushik, Veenu Mehta, Manish K. Kashyap

  • Abstract

    Piezoelectric materials are the smart materials, expected to be viable substitute to cater the increasing need of energy in future. They are premium choice for design of self-powered small-scale devices. With this aim in mind, a working model for easy and economical energy harvesting has been reported using piezoelectric assembly on plain and inclined roads. An appreciable amount of electricity to supply the small need of energy in daily appliances has been generated using piezoelectric assembly installed beneath the road. The generation of electricity is found to be increased on inclined road as compared to plain road. The idea may focus the attention of researchers to implement the same at large industrial scale. Piezoelectric, Energy Harvesting, PZT, Asphalt Layer

Fluorescence Lifetime Study of Curcumin with β-Cyclodextrin

S. Bakkialakshmi and G. Jayaranjani

  • Abstract

    Curcumin, with its recent success as an anti-tumor agent, has been attracting research from wide ranging fields of physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. The chemical structure of curcumin has two o-methoxy phenols attached symmetrically through α, β- unsaturated β-diketone linker, which also induces keto-enol tautomerism. Due to this, curcumin exhibits many interesting photophysical and photochemical properties. The absorption maximum of curcumin is ~ 408-430nm in most of the organic solvents, while the emission maximum is very sensitive to the surrounding solvent medium (460-560nm) and Stoke’s shift varied from 2000 to 6000cm-1. The decay curves were recorded from curcumin without and with different concentrations of
    β-cyclodextrin.

A theoretical study of the Bose gas trapped in a 3Dcombined harmonic-optical potential and an evaluation of effective size and expansion energy of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a 3D non-cubic optical lattice

Mini Sinha, Pradhan Durga Shankar Prasad and L. K. Mishra

  • Abstract

    Using the theoretical formalism of Sheni S. M. Soliman, we theoretical study Bose gas trapped in a 3D combined harmonic-optical potential. We have evaluated the effect size and expansion (release) energy of Bose-Einstein condensate in a 3D non-cubicoptical lattice. Our theoretically evaluated results show that both the lattice depth and the relative frequency have significant effects on these two parameters. We have also observed that the effect of anisotropic of magnetic trap frequency is more than the effect of lattice depth. These two quantities can be characterized the SF-MI transition to the experimental system with an interacting atoms in an optical lattice. Our theoretically evaluated results of expansive energy are roughly Ez=λ Ex, y where λ is a parameter. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with other theoretical workers. 

Theoretical Analysis of the Charge Transport Processes at Semiconductor /Liquid System

Hadi. J.M. Al-Agealy., Abass.K.Sadoon., Mohsin.A.βHassooni

  • Abstract

    Theoretical investigations of the charge transfer mechanism at the molecule / semiconductor interface depending on evaluated of the charge transition rate constant according to the quantum consideration. A two electronic states vector donor BD|>, and accepted |BA > are introduce to satisfy the system. Model systems discussed are the molecule 3, 4, 9, 10- perylene-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) on the Si and ZnO surfaces. A different solvents show clearly influence on the charge transfer throw depending on the polarity function of solvent. Continuum energy levels are adapted to investigate the transition energy for the system. The transition energy of charge transfer at the interface states is to a large extent determined by the refractive index and static dielectric constant while the wave function experiences a strong influence from the geometry of the molecules. Data of results of charge transition rate constant are increased with increases of the energy transition and decreases of potential height barrier 

Evaluation of the Electrical and Mechanical Performance of the Ceramic (Bentonite Clay/Silica)

Intisar Abbas Hamad

  • Abstract

    In this work, Iraqi clay has been modified with the addition of 20 wt% silica to prepare ceramic bodies for electrical insulating applications and raising the thermal withstand capability for them. By using forming pressure (100 MPa), the samples have been formed as a disc shape and then treated by using firing temperature (1000 ºC, 1100 ºC, 1200 ºC, 1250 ºC). The X-ray diffraction result (at1250 ºC) showed that the exist main phases are: Tridymite, Mullite, Cordierite and Corundum phase. The electrical behaviour has been investigated in the frequency range 50Hz to 1MHz. The parameters dielectric constant, dielectric loss, dissipation factor and A.C. Electrical conductivity has been calculated beside the mechanical measurements. Sample fired at 1250 ºC showed the best results of both mechanical and electrical measurements (at 1MHz).

Bianchi Type I Viscous Fluid Cosmological Model with Electromagnetic Field

Reena Mathur, Gajendra Pal Singh and Atul Tyagi

  • Abstract

    We have investigated Bianchi type-I viscous fluid cosmological models with the electromagnetic field. To get deterministic model, we have assumed that (i) (BC) = K and (ii) η α θ where η is the coefficient of shear viscosity and θ is the expansion in the model. The Physical and Geometrical aspects of the model are also discussed.

Studies on Dielectric Constant and Emissivity of Azadirachta Indica Tree Leaves at C- Band Frequencies

Shabana A. R. Khatik and D. V. Ahire

  • Abstract

    This study presents the data on complex dielectric constant and emissivity of tree leaves at C- band microwave frequencies (4.1 GHz and 5.1 GHz). Waveguide cell method has been used for measuring dielectric constant and loss of tree leaves. Leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) having different gravimetric moisture content (%) are used in these experiments. Our results show that complex dielectric constant increase with increase in their moisture content (%). These values of dielectric constant are used to estimate the emissivity of leaves having different percentage moisture contents (%) at various incidence angles. Estimation of emissivity is made by using emissivity model for vertical and horizontal polarizations. For same values of moisture content, the emissivity of leaves increase for vertical polarization as the angle of incidence is increased whereas, its value decreases for horizontal polarization with increase in angle of incidence. These reported results have potential applications in remote sensing of forests, agricultural crops and mobile communications.

Study of Electrical Behaviour of Ceramic (Cordierite-Mullite) Derived from Local Clay

Lamyaa Mohammed Raoof

  • Abstract

    In this work, Iraqi white Ca bentonite clay has been modified to convert to the sodium form, by using Na2CO3 at concentrating ratio (7.5% wt %). Ceramic bodies have been prepared from this converted clay with Alumina and Magnesia additives under the limit condition for the purpose of this study. By using forming pressure (100 MPa), the samples have been formed as a disc shape and then fired at (1250 ºC, 1300 ºC, 1350 ºC, 1400 ºC). The X-ray diffraction results have shown that the exist main phases are: Mullite, Cordierite and Corundum phase. The electrical behaviour has been investigated in the frequency range 50Hz to 1MHz at room temperature and as a function of temperature range (30-200) oC to evaluate the performance of the electrical resistivity. The best results of the electrical measurements as an electrical insulator at (at 1MHz) have emerged for the sample fired at 1400 ºC.

Investigations into the Proton Stopping Power of Human Body

Huda M. Tawfeek, Firas M. Hady, Mustafa K. Jassim

  • Abstract

    The stopping powers for water, bones, muscles, and tissues of human body have been calculated in the range of proton energies 0.5– 200 MeV using some empirical, numerical relations, SRIM software and PSTAR database. We suggest using two simple fitting formulas for PSTAR database. Further, we found other forms of available stopping power equations. The presented results are in good agreement with existing theoretical and semi- empirical data. This work might be useful in programming the input data for applications in radiotherapy.

Dependence of electron energy distribution function and transport parameters for SF6, CO2 and (SF6 - CO2) gases mixture discharge

Enas. A. Jawad

  • Abstract

    We use a binary gas mixture Monte Carlo simulation model EEDF program for the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation to calculate the electron energy distribution function and the transport parameters in pure SF6, CO2 and their mixtures. The electron swarm parameters are evaluated in the range (50 Td ≤ E/N ≤ 900 Td) at the temperature273K and Pressure 0.1 Mpa. These parameters, namely are: mean electron energy, characteristic energy, mobility of electron, Diffusion Coefficient and drift velocity. The calculated distribution function is found to be remarked non-Maxwillian that has energy variations which reflect the import electron-molecule energy exchange processes. Also, the mixtures have different energy values depending on transport, energy between electron and molecule through the collisions. Behaviour of electron transport parameters is nearly from the experimental results in references.After CO2 was added to SF6 the drift velocity of electron in SF6–CO2 increases. The mean electron energy, characteristic energy and Diffusion Coefficient to the mixture are increasing at sulphur hexafluoride ratios increased.

Calculate the Magnetic Rigidity and Focusing Strength Factor for Focus the Ions Beam from Plasma Source

Dr. Bushra J. Hussein, Dr. Dheyaa A. Nasrallah

  • Abstract

    A solenoid magnet is one of important elements in many transport systems, so in the present study, a computational investigation has been introduced to calculate some parameters of solenoid magnet and included theoretical analysis using matrices representation because it is best method to represent and tracing the charged particles beam along any optical system (that in this study consists from plasma source and two drift space regions before and after the solenoid magnet), and calculate these parameters like the magnetic rigidity, beam envelope through the magnet, magnification and the focusing strength where many features of the magnets’ design are dictated by the ion-optical configuration needed to produce magnetically select, focus and defocus the ion beam to the target by matlab computer program.The results shows solenoid magnet acts as converge lens but may convert to diverging lens at some conditions also the variation of the solenoid magnetic field (B) leads to change the focusing of beam passing through the system which that explained in the values of magnification.

An Evaluation of Dispersion Relation of Propagation of Electromagnetic Wave with TE Modes in Carbon Nanotube

Rajendra Pd. Singh, Rajendra Prasad Singh & L. K. Mishra

  • Abstract

    Using the theoretical formalism of Li Wei etal. (Phys. LettA 333 (2004)), we have studied the electromagnetic wave propagation in carbon nanotubes. We have studied the dispersion relation of TE-mode as a function of dimensionless parameter κa for fixed value of radius ‘a’ and different values of m. We have also studied the influence of nanotube radius on the dispersion relation for m=1.We observed that the obtained dispersion relation is very much identical to well-known electrostatic collective excitation. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with those of the other theoretical workers. 

 Effect of the Running Strength Coupling on the Probability of Photons Transition at Quark–Quark
Interaction Depending on the Quantum Chromodynamics Theory

 Hadi J. M. Al-Agealy and Enass. J. Muhssen

  • Abstract

     In this paper, we can investigation of the effect of the running strength coupling on the  robability of photons transfer according to quantum chromodynamic theory. The probability of photon transition rate of quarkquark interaction as a function of the running strength coupling and photon energy have been evaluated. Probability of photon transition rate is evaluated depending on the running strength coupling , momentum transfer P, photon energy ,critical temperature ,and temperature energy for system T. Probability of photon transition rate is increasing at decreasing of running coupling strength with increasing of energy T and vice versa. The behaviour of quark state interaction is described as confinement and asymptotic freedom depending on the running coupling strength

Central Tendency of Annual Extremum of Ambient Air Temperature at Tezpur Based on
Midrange and Median 

Rinamani Sarmah Bordoloi and Dhritikesh Chakrabarty

  • Abstract

    In 2015, an analytical method has been developed by Chakrabarty for determining the true value of the central tendency of the annual extremum of ambient air temperature at a location based on the stability property of the midrange and symmetry properties of normal distribution. The method has already been applied to determine the value of central tendency of each of annual maximum and annual minimum of ambient air temperature at Guwahati based on the data since the year 1969 onwards. Determination of these two values is based on the assumption that change in temperature over years during the period for which data are available occurs due to chance cause only but not due to any assignable cause. This paper deals with the determination of the value of central tendency of each of annual maximum and annual minimum of ambient air temperature at Tezpur based on the data for the year 1969 onwards and based on the same assumption as made in the determination of the same in the case of Guwahati that has already been done. The values of the central tendency of annual maximum and annual minimum of the ambient air temperature at Tezpur have been found to be 36.8 Degree Celsius and 8.6 Degree Celsius respectively.

Germanium production from gallium nuclear reactions with proton

Dr. Sameera A. Ebrahiem, Noor Adel Mohammed, Rafah A.

  • Abstract

    The aim of the present work is to produce 69Ge and 71Ge by proton incident on 69Ga and 71Ga, the results obtained have shown that the Q-value and threshold energy for 69Ga31 (p,n) 69Ge32 was higher than 71Ga31,(p,n)  71Ge32. By using fitting spline and interpolated we calculated the cross sections and stopping power in fine steps (1MeV) for 71Ga31,(p,n), 69Ge32 and (0.5MeV) for 71Ga31,(p,n)  71Ge32 . Neutron yield have been calculated and obtained semi-empirical formulas for both reactions . 

Role of Electrical Conductivity in deciding the quality of Soil

P. R. Chaudhari, Vidya D. Ahire and D. V. Ahire

  • Abstract

    Evaluation of soil quality index (SQI) is crucial but expensive task for organic growers and  mallholder agriculture. Foresters have always relied on knowledge of physical and chemical properties of soils to assess capacity of sites to support productive forests. But it’s a time consuming and expensive way of knowing the quality of soil. It would be desirable to develop a soil quality index that integrates the measured soil physical and chemical properties into a single parameter that could be used as an indicator of overall forest soil quality. Electrical Conductivity (EC) is one of the soil properties which have a good relationship with the other soil characteristics. As measured soil electrical conductivity is easier, less expensive and faster than other soil properties measurements, it may play primary role in deciding the quality of soil. Here, we calculated SQI with the use of commonly used physical and chemical parameters of 47 soil samples collected from 7 sites in six states of India. The correlations between these values of SQI with their electrical conductivity were observed. Results showed the relationship between Electrical Conductivity and Soil Quality Index is high order polynomial and not linear. That can be used to monitor changes in soil properties with time and deciding the quality of soil.

Effect of Mn Doping on Optical Properties of NiO Thin films Prepared by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis Method

Ziad T. Khodair, Asaad A. Kamil , Yamamah K. Abdalaah

  • Abstract

    Undoped NiO and NiO doped thin films with volume percentage doping of (2,4,6 and 8 %) have been prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis method (CSP) on glass substrates at a temperature of (400 °C). The effect of Mn doping on optical properties has been investigated. The absorbance and transmittance spectra have been recorded in the wavelength range of (300-900) nm in order to study the optical properties. The optical energy gap for allowing direct electronic transition was calculated using Tauc equation and it is found to be (3.59 eV) for undoped NiO thin films. However, the increase in doping percentage causes decreases in the value of the energy gap and it reaches to (3.53 eV) for the doping percentage of (8%). And the energy gap for the forbidden direct electronic transition was calculated. The Urbach energy increases as the doping percentage increase and it is found to be (324 meV) for undoped NiO thin films and it reaches to (560 meV) for doping percentage of (8%). The optical constants, including (absorption coefficient (α), extinction coefficient (Kₒ), refractive index (nₒ), real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant) were also calculated as a function of photon energy.

On A Finsler Space with Special Bi-Recurrent Curvature

U. S. Negi

  • Abstract

    Takano1,2 has studied a space with bi-recurrent curvature and a special bi-recurrent space. Also, Dragomir and Lanus 3,4 have defined and studied the geometry of the Finslerian almost complex spaces and the holomorphic sectional curvature of Kaehlerian Finsler Spaces. In this paper, I have defined and studied on a finsler space with special bi-recurrent curvature and several theorems are established.

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