Vol. 6 & Issue 1 ; Section C : Physical Sciences

Date : Nov. 2015 to Jan. 2016


Emissive and scattering properties of tree leaves for C band frequency in microwave region of electromagnetic spectrum

Shabana A.R. Khatik and D. V. Ahire

  • Abstract

    This study provides the experimental data on dielectric constant and dielectric loss at microwave frequency for Tamarindus indica (Imli) and Tectona grandis (Sag) tree species. The  easurement of dielectric constant of these tree species is carried out using waveguide cell method in the C- band frequency range (4.1GHz). Emissivity and scattering coefficient have been estimated from the measured values of dielectric constant. Emissivity of tree leaves is estimated by using emissivity model and scattering coefficient is estimated using perturbation model or slightly rough surface. For both,vertical and horizontal polarizations, at constant value of incident angle, emissivity of tree leaves is found to decrease significantly increase in the values of its gravimetric moisture content(MC%),while their scattering coefficient increases significantly with increase in the values of its moisture content(MC%). Also, the values of scattering coefficient and emissivity for tree leaves at same incident angle are greater for vertical polarization than for horizontal polarization. The results obtained are useful for microwave remote sensing of  vegetation canopy. 

An Evaluation of Dispersion Relation of Propagation of Electromagnetic Wave with TM Modes in Carbon Nanotube with and Without Electron Energy-Band Effects

Rajendra Pd. Singh, Rajendra Prasad Singh & L. K. Mishra

  • Abstract

    Using the theoretical formalism of Li Wei etal.(Phys. LettA 333 (2004)) and Afshin Moradi (J. Electromagnetic Analysis & Applications (2010), we have studied the dispersion relation of TM-mode with and without electron energy band effects. Without including electron energy band effects, the dispersion relation can be studied with linearized hydrodynamic theory with Maxwell equations. This indicates that the TMmode is very different from TE-mode. Here, the dispersion relation does not approach to well-known dispersion relation of 2D electron-gas. Besides, it also indicates that internal interaction forces play an important role on the dispersion relation of TM-mode. The dispersion relation of TM-mode including electron energy band effects can be studied by means of the semiclassical kinectic theory of the electron dynamics. The effect of energy band structure is taken into account for surface plasmon oscillations in the zig-zag and armchair nanotube of metallic character. Our theoretical results also indicate that plasmon waves are not sensitive to the types of metallic nanotube with same radius. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with those of the other theoretical workers.

Study on Leaves of Plant of Family Cisalpinnea(Delonix regia) as Non Conventional Bio lectrochemical Low Power Sources

U. N. Ingle

  • Abstract

    Bio-chemical properties of plant leaves have been used to develop the nonconventional ioelectrical energy sources for micropower electronic devices and are termed as bio-emf-devices (BEDs). The peculiar characteristics details of the Bio electro devices using leaves of ornamental importance and ayurvedic medicinal plant from the family Cisalpinnea viz. Delonix regia have been studied. The qualitative aspects of the leaves to develop non-conventional bio-electrochemical low power sources have been attempted. Here qualitative result indicates the possible involvement of bio-activities in the operational mechanism of bio-emf-devices.

Voltage and frequency dependence of electroluminescence of ZnS: Dy,Cl and ZnS:Cu,Dy,Cl Phosphors

P. K. Srivastava, A. K. Sahu, V. Nayar and P.S. Chowdhary

  • Abstract

    We reported the measuring frequency and voltage dependence of electroluminescence phosphors. The EL brightness of these phosphors increases with frequency and strength of electric field and then after sometime the brightness decreases gradually. The ZnS:Cu,Dy,Cl(cubic) was found to be intense electroluminescent whereas ZnS:Dy,Cl(Hexagonal) exhibited weak EL.The EL brightness is found to be optimum for 2100 and 2200 ppm in ZnS:Dy,Cl(cubic) and ZnS:Dy,Cl(Hexagonal) phosphors respectively.

Ziad T. Khodair,Asaad A. Kamil,Watban Ahmed Khamiss

Optical and Structural Properties of Cd (1-x) AlxO Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis Technique

  • Abstract

    In this research undoped and Al-doped cadmium oxide (CdO:Al) thin films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis technique and deposited on glass substrates at (400oC)with various concentrations of aluminum(3,5,7and 9) wt % . (CdO: Al) films were characterized using different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis which showed that all the films were polycrystalline in nature and had a cubic structure with preferred orientation along (111) plane for all doping percentages. The average grain size increase as (Al) concentration increases with doping and reaches (23) nm when doping level is (9) wt %. The films have good transmittance in the visible region and transmittance increase with Al-doping. The band gap value increases with doping increases and reaches (2.6) eV when doping level is (9)wt %. The optically constants as refractive index, an extinction coefficient were investigated. Refractive index measured by using two patterns Cauchy and Sillmier.

Numerical Accuracy of Newton-Raphson’s Method

Dilli Raj Neupane

  • Abstract

    Square roots of natural numbers from 1 to 25 have been found using Newton-Raphson method with initial guess of x0 = 0.1 by using C++ computer program. Number of iterations, root guessed by Newton-Raphson method in each iteration (xn) and value of function at x = xn have been found out. Accuracy of the root of the equation has been set to the condition f(xr) <=0.0001 for the root xr. Average percentage error in Newton-Raphson’s method in the calculation of square roots of natural numbers from 1 to 25 has been found to be 0.000007607615.

Accuracy of Digital Radiography in Detecting Root Canal Type in Mandibular Premolars in South
Indian Population 

Aditya Shetty, Mithra N Hegde, Raksha Bhat , Shishir Shetty,Chittaranjan Shetty, Tony Mathew

  • Abstract

    The success of endodontic therapy relies on adequate mechanical and chemical debridement of the root canal system which optimally requires elaborate knowledge of the complex root canal anatomy. The anatomical variation of the root canal system is often a complicating factor during root canal treatment. Failure in assessing the root canal morphology can lead to misdiagnosis, missed canals, improper debridement and eventually failure of treatment. Conventional radiography has been used for many years for evaluating root canal morphology. Digital radiography was developed to overcome the shortcomings of conventional radiography which provided the major advantage for image manipulation.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy digital radiography for assessing the root canal morphology in teeth indicated for endodontic therapy. 

Effect of General Boundary Conditions on the Peristaltic Flow of a Nano fluid in an Asymmetric Channel Embedded with a Non-Darcy Porous Medium

V. P. Rathod  and D. Sanjeevkumar 

  • Abstract

    An analysis of peristaltic flow of a nanofluid in an asymmetric channel, filled with a non-Darcy porous medium, having flexible walls is presented, incorporating general boundary conditions on velocity, temperature and concentration of nanoparticles. The nanofluid is assumed to obey the model that is based on the thermophoresis and Brownian diffusion effects. The governing equations of motion reduce to a system of partial differential equations under long wave length approximation and low Reynolds number limit. Closed form solutions are obtained for temperature distribution, nanoparticle concentration distribution. Approximate analytical solutions are obtained for velocity, pressure gradient and pressure rise over wave length using regular perturbation method. Effects of various physical parameters like, the slip, Darcy, Brinkman and Forchhiemer numbers, Biot numbers, thermo phoresis, Brownian motion on velocity profiles, temperature distribution, nanoparticle concentration distribution and pressure rise are discussed thoroughly. The results of the paper may lead to possible technological applications in the field of biomedicine. 

A Theoretical Study of Quantum Mechanical Motion of Charged Particle in Radio Frequency Trap
and its Application in the Study of Laser Cooling of two Tapped Ions

Sudhir Singh, V.K. Verma and L.K. Mishra

  • Abstract

    Using the theoretical formalism of Leibfried et al (Rev Mod Phys. 75 (2003)), we have studied quantum dynamics of single trapped ions. Using the theoretical formalism of G. Morigi et al (Phys. Rev. A59 (1999)), we have studied the laser cooling of two trapped ions within and beyond Lamb-Dicke regime. Our theoretical results show that single ion confined in rf traps offer two nearly ideal basic systems, a two level system and an approximate harmonic oscillator. With appropriate light fields, these two subsystems can be coupled in a number of ways. This leads to awealth of possible studies like laser cooling, resonance fluorescence, quantum state reconstruction and motional decoherence of single ion. Our theoretical studies of laser cooling of two ions for sideband cooling within and beyond Lamb-Dicke regime indicate that within Lamb-Dicke regime it is analogous to single ion cooling. Beyond this limit the frequencis of two vibration modes result quasicontinnum spectrum that alters the cooling dynamics. On comparing the results of rate equation treatment and Monte Carlo calculations, it appears that rate equation is a good approximation for both inside and outside Lamb-Dicke regime. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with other theoretical workers

Structural and Electrical behaviors of Zn Substituted Li-Ni Ferrite Synthesized by Double
Sintering Technique

Abdulla Al Noman, Humayun Kabir, Md. Mamun-Or-Rashid, M. S. Bashar,Mashudur Rahaman, Md. Abdul Gafur, A.T.M.K. Jamil, Syed Jamal Ahmed , Md.Rakibul Qadir, Farid Ahmed

  • Abstract

    In this work we report a study of the structural and electrical behaviors of Zn substituted Li-Ni ferrite prepared by double sintering ceramic technique having the general formula Li 0.15 Ni x Zn0.85-2xFe2+xO4 (LNZFO), where x = 0.00, 0.10, 0.20,0.30 and 0.40. The samples were sintered at 1050oC for 4 hours in the normal atmosphere. The prepared samples were confirmed in the single-phase cubic spinal structure by the X-ray diffraction method. The bulk density of LNZFO increased whereas lattice parameter decreased with increasing the Ni content. The complex permeability, loss factor and Q-factor were measured as a function of the frequency in the range from 102 Hz to 108 Hz, respectively. Real part of permeability and Q-factor were decreased whereas imaginary part of permeability and loss factor were increased with increasing Ni-content for the frequency dependent cases. Dielectric constant and AC resistivity of LNZFO decreased with increasing frequency. 

Study of the Effect of Annealing on the Optical Properties of CoFe2O4 Films Prepared by Chemical
Spray Pyrolysis Method

Sabah A. Salman, Asaad A. Kamil, Sahar J. Abed

  • Abstract

    Cobalt Ferrite CoFe2O4 thin films have been deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis method with thickness (400±20 nm) on glass substrates at temperature (400°C) using Cobalt Nitrate and Ferric Nitrate as Cobalt and Iron sources respectively. The effect of annealing with different temperatures (500, 550) oC for (2h) on the optical properties for all prepared films was studied. The optical properties for all the films were studied by recording the transmittance and absorbance spectrum in the range of (300- 900) nm. The results showed that the energy band gap for allowed direct electronic transition varies from (2.28 to 2.58) eV with the increasing of annealing temperature. The optical constants (absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant and optical conductivity) as a function of photon energy for all prepared films were calculated.

Gamma Ray Attenuation Technique for Measuring Water Content and Density of Selected Wood Samples

Rajeev Kumar & Barinder Kaur

  • Abstract

    Moisture content in wood and wood composites is one of most important factors that affect both physical stability and mechanical performance. The gamma spectroscopy is the preferred method for determination of moisture content and mass attenuation coefficient (μ) in wood as being indestructible, fast and with good sensitivity. We determined the mass attenuation coefficient (μ) and moisture content of selected wood types i.e., Shisham (Dalbergia Sisso) and Teak (Tectona Grandis). Measurements were performed using NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and a radioactive source of energy 0.662 MeV. The measured relative transmitted intensities were plotted against the thickness of wood samples. The fitted plots represents that the μ value for dry state is higher than the μ value for completely wet samples. This result is in good agreement with the theoretical expected results. 

Effect of Vanadium Doping on Structural Properties of SnO2 Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis Method

Ziad T. Khodair, Nabeel A. Bakr, Adnan A. Mohammed

  • Abstract

    In this study, (Sn1-xVxO2) thin films, where (x = 0, 4, 6 and 8) % have been deposited on glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique (CSP) at substrate temperature of (400 ºC) and thickness of about 400 ± 10 nm. The structural properties and morphology of these films have been studied using XRD and AFM respectively. XRD analyses showed that these films are polycrystalline in nature with tetragonal Rutile structure with preferred orientation of (110). Doping with Vanadium causes decrease in the grain size and increase in dislocation density, micro strain, and interplanar spacing.

Assessment of the Capability of Wetlands Plants Organs to Fix Nutrients and Heavy Metals in Ndobogo Wetland, Southern Province of Rwanda

Prof. Elias Bizuru, Ms Germaine Hirwa, Mr Emmanuel Nkundimana, Prof. Théoneste Muhizi, MrErasme Uyizeye, Ms.Aliane Umurerwa, Mrs. Laure B. Kananura

  • Abstract

    To investigate the cleaning capacity and nutrients uptake in wetland most abundant plants species, Digitaria velutina, Oryza sativa, Cyperus latifolius, Persicaria senegalensis species have been investigated in Ndobogo marshland, Southern of Rwanda. Leaves, stems and roots of the four species were collected, crushed using destruction tubes and then dried in oven at 1050C. Major nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and some heavy metals (Fe, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn) were thereafter analyzed on an UV/Vis Spectrophotometer CECIL 2041 and on Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (Perkin Elmer Precisely A Analyst 200), respectively. For all heavy metals studied, the iron was accumulated in all plants species with the highest concentration inside roots of Persicaria senegalensis (1022.5mg/100g). Lead was not detected anywhere. Persicaria senegalensis was also the best species in Cr and Cd uptake from the marshland. The same trend was observed for total nitrogen whose concentration was dominant in the leaves of Persicaria senegalensis (1826.3mg/100g), while the highest rate of total phosphorus concentration was detected in the roots of Oryza Sativa (973.8mg/100g). Persicaria senegalensis and Cyperus latifolius have the highest nutrients uptake rate with higher concentrations inside leaves. Therefore, those plant species may play a very good cleaning role by removingfrom the environment most of the heavy metals occurring but also by retaining fertilizers components. The best plant for this being Persicaria senegalensis followed by Cyperus latifolius and Oryza sativa. In addition, all these plant species may also be recommendable for organic manure production based on their abundance in Rwandan marshlands and their higher concentration in N, P and K.

Dielectric Properties and AC Conductivity as Predicators of Nutrients and Chemical Properties in Soil

N. Nagaraja, N.B. Desai, and H.S. Jayanna

  • Abstract

    The objective of this study was to find out Chemical Parameters and status of available total primary macronutrients (N+P+K) and total micronutrients (Fe+Cu+Mn+Zn) in soil from the measured values of Dielectric properties and Electrical Conductivity. The soil samples collected from different talukas of Chitradurga district of Karnataka state were analyzed for the chemical properties like organic carbon (OC), PH and for status of available nutrients as per methods standardized at Krishi Vigyana Kendra, Navile, Shivamogga, an institution affiliated to University of Agriculture sciences, Bangalore. Micronutrients were analyzed by atomic absorption Spectroscopic (AAS) Technique. The dielectric Properties were measured by using LCR meter at radio frequency 218 KHz. The statistical analysis of results was used to find correlations between the dielectric properties and electrical conductivity with soil chemical composition.

Einstein A- Coefficient of Isomer 2 of C5H2Molecule

Shinde S. A.

  • Abstract

    Laboratory formation of four isomers of C5H2 molecule is reported. For identification of a molecule in cosmic objects, one of the required input data is Einstein A- coefficients (radiative transition probabilities) for the molecule. Here, we report Einstein A- coefficients for electric dipole transitions in the isomer 2 of C5H2 among the rotational levels of the ground electronic and ground vibrational states upto 21 cm-1.

Stress Distribution in Earlobe Though Oximeter- Glucometer Earlobe Clip

Hilda Aguilar Rodríguez, Alma Rosa Méndez Gordillo, Miguel Villagómez Galindo,Christian José García Abrego, Georgina Carbajal de la Torre

  • Abstract

    Using the finite element method, an analysis of the damage caused by a clip simulated stress which is in contact with the earlobe is presented. The objective of this analysis is to determine the  iameter of the clip, which does not cause any damage to the lobular tissue when a force of 1.07 N is applied. Geometry was designed based on the physical characteristics and mechanical properties of an earlobe, data from Beatty1. As for geometry of the clips, the data obtained in Goodell2 were considered to be simulated in COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4. Should be mentioned that for analyzing the radius, three ranges of radius for the clip were parameterized: r1 = 7 mm, r2 = 7.849 mm, and r3 = 9 mm. It was found that the radius of 7.849 mm in tissue damage during periods of prolonged use occurs, which for value to the found that maximum stress values are located at the center of the earlobe clip and are of 4,500 N/m2.

The Study of Solution Absorption and Diffusion Coefficient in Epoxy Composite and Hybrids

Seenaa Ibraheim Hussein

  • Abstract

    In this research study the Diffusivity behavior and diffusion coefficient for epoxy composite reinforced with glass fibers , carbon fibers, and woven Kevlar+carbon fibers with volume fraction 5%,10%,and 15%. The samples were immersed in different solution for equal time at constant temperature (room temperature 24ₒC). The result show that the relative mass gain increased with increasing the immersion time till they tend saturation moisture mass (M∞) after that the relative mass gain decreased. The result show that the samples immersed in (kerosene) solution had higher mass gain while the samples immersed in water. Also the results show that the samples immersed in Nacl-water solution has maximum diffusion coefficient (8.84*10-2 mm2/day) which means minimum absorption resistance while the samples immersed in H2O has minimum diffusion coefficient (0.24 * 10-2 mm2/day) (maximum absorption resistance).

Confidence Interval of Annual Extremum of Ambient Air Temperature at Guwahati

Dhritikesh Chakrabarty

  • Abstract

    One method, based on the true value of the central tendency, has been constructed for determining the confidence interval of annual extremum of the ambient air temperature at a location. The  ethod has been applied in determining the confidence interval of each of annual maximum and  nnual minimum of the ambient air temperature at Guwahati based on the data since the year 1969 onwards. Determination of these two is based on the assumption that change in temperature over years during the period for which data are available occurs due to chance cause only. It has been found, in the case of the ambient air temperature at Guwahati, that with almost certainty its (i) maximum cannot exceed 40.61 Degree Celsius and (ii) minimum cannot fall below 3.77 Degree Celsius, if the change in temperature is not affected by any significant factor

A New Sub-Equation Method and Novel Interaction Solutions of the Boussinesq Equation

Qiankun Li Xiaoxiao Zhang &Huaitang Chen

  • Abstract

    In this paper, a new auxiliary equation method is presented. Analytical multiple function solutions including trigonometric function, exponential function, hyperbolic function and other functions can be easily obtained. Novel exact interaction solutions of the Boussinesq equation are obtained successfully by using this new auxiliary equation method. It is very significant to help physicists to analyze special phenomena in their relevant fields accurately.

Annual Extremum of Ambient Air Temperature at Dibrugarh: Determination of Central Tendency

Rinamani Sarmah Bordoloi  and Dhritikesh Chakrabarty

  • Abstract

    Ambient air temperature at a location attains at a maximum and at a minimum during a  emperature periodic year. Each of the annual maximum and the annual minimum at any location is to remain unchanged over time provided the changed in temperature at the location is not influenced by any disturbing factor. However, disturbance due to chance always influences upon the change of it. Consequently, variation arises among the observations on annual extremum of temperature. Though variation occurs, the observations on each of have a central tendency. The existing statistical methods of estimation are not capable of providing estimator of this central tendency which is free from error In other words, none of these methods can provide the true value of the central tendency .Recently an analytical method, based on stable midrange and median, has been innovated for determining the true value of the central tendency in such situation. This paper is based on one numerical application of this method in determining the central tendency of each of the annual maximum and the annual minimum of the ambient air temperature at Dibrugarh. The determination of this central tendency is based on the assumption that the variation among the observations used in said determination occurs due to chance only.

Effect Doping On the Structural and Optical Properties of PVA with Fecl3 and NH4VO3 Nano- Composite Films

Sameer Atta Makki , Enas Yasseen Abid , Seham Hassan Salman

  • Abstract

    PVA has been doped with FeCl3 with concentration 8% and different percentage of NH4VO3 with concentration of (2%, 4% and 10%) and study effect doping on structural and optical properties of films (PVA) by casting method, which a thickness of ( 50±10) μm. The investigation of (XRD) indicates that the (PVA: FeCl3 and NH4VO3) films are polycrystalline. The results of the measuring from grain size increasing after doping. The absorbance and transmittance spectra have been recorded in the wavelength range (200-1100) nm in order to study the optical properties. Results From indirect allowed transition the optical energy gap show decreases from 4.2 eV (for pure PVA) to 2.1 eV (for PVA+8% FeCl3+10% NH4VO3). And the absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refraction index, the finesse coefficient and the optical conductivity are change with different concentration of NH4VO3.

A Theoretical Study of Trapped Two-Level Atoms Coupled to Light Fields and an Evaluation of Rabi Oscillation on the Blue Sideband for the Ground State and Rabi Frequencies for Different Number States for Several Lamb-Dicke Parameters

Sudhir Singh , V.K. Verma  and L. K. Mishra 

  • Abstract

    Using the theoretical formalism of D. Leibfried et al, Meekhof et al and Roos et al, we have theoretically studied the trapped two-level atoms coupled to light field and evaluated Rabi oscillation on the blue sideband for the ground state trap (n=0) and number state (n=1). We have also evaluated Rabi oscillation for coherent states and squeezed states. Our theroretically evaluated results for Rabi oscillation are in good agreement with the other theoretical workers. Our other evaluation of ratio of Rabi frequencies for different number states and for several Lamb-Dicke parameters η show that the ratio increases with number states. However the ratio evaluated for η=0.202 are in good agreement with the experimental data.

Temperature and Light Intensity Influences on Growth of Pleurotus sajor-caju

S. A. Shinde, A. B. Pandey and S. S. Patil

  • Abstract

    Study was conducted to study the effect of temperature and light on growth, yield of mushroom fruiting bodies of P. sajor-caju. Minimum spawn run period (16 to 20 days) and minimum period for formation of pin head (21-24 days), fruiting bodies (24 – 27 days) was recorded at 25 0C. Maximum period for spawn run ( 27 to 33 days), pin head formation (33 – 38 days) and fruiting body formation (37 - 42 days) were reported at 15 0C. From study it was found that, with increase in temperature from 15to 250C the yield of mushroom fruiting bodies increased progressively and spawn run period decreased. With increase in period of light exposure from 5 to 14 hours/day and its intensity from 200 – 600 lx, the yield of mushroom was found to be increased. Maximum yield of mushroom fruiting bodies was found (800 gm/kg dry straw) when light exposure of 14 hours at 600 lx light intensity and minimum yield (246 gm/kg dry straw) was recorded to 5 hours of light exposure at 200 lx light intensity.

A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study on FT-IR, FT-Raman Spectra and Molecular Structure of N-(4-Methoxybenzylidene)-4-Methoxyaniline

F.Liakath Ali Khan, A.Md.Sabeelullah Roomy, G.Saravanan

  • Abstract

    The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of the N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4- methoxyaniline (N4MBA4MA) have been recorded in the region 3500–200 cm-1 and 4000–400 cm-1 respectively. The geometry optimization and vibrational wavenumbers with Raman and IR absorption intensities have been investigated by ab initio HF/6-311++G(d,p) and DFT method using 6-311G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of TED of vibrational modes, calculated with SQM method. HOMO and LUMO orbitals have been visualized and energy levels of the HOMO and LUMO orbitals were also computed. The NBO has been performed in order to study the intra-molecular bonding, interactions among bonds and delocalization of unpaired electrons. The Mulliken charges are also calculated.

Structural and Optical Properties of Zinc Doped Nickel Ferrite Ni(1-x)Zn(x)Fe2O4 Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis Method

Nabeel A. Bakr, Sabah A. Salman, Heyam F. Khudhair

  • Abstract

    Nanocrystalline, homogeneous spinel Ni(1−x)Zn(x)Fe2O4 thin films (where x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1) were deposited on glass substrates by using chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique at substrate temperature of (400 ± 10) oC and thickness of about (300 ± 10) nm. Before characterization, all films were annealed in atmosphere ambient at temperature of 520 oC for 4 hours. The structural, morphological and optical properties of these films have been investigated using XRD, AFM, and UV-Visible spectroscopy respectively. The XRD results showed that all films are polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure and preferred orientation along (311) plane according to the (ICDD) card no. 10-0325. The crystallite size calculated by Scherrer’s formula was found to be 14.18 nm for the undoped sample and decreases up to 3.94 nm for the sample with x = 0.10. It is observed also that the lattice constant of Ni–Zn ferrite thin films increases with growing concentration of Zn2+, and this may be attributed to the smaller Ni2+ cations of smaller ionic radii (0.74 Å) being replaced by larger Zn2+ cations of larger ionic radii (0.84 Å). Moreover, the addition of Zn2+ ions causes the migration of Fe3+ ions from tetrahedral sites to octahedral sites. The AFM images show a uniform island-like topography and some structure of clusters could be clearly observed. The size of grains in clusters of the prepared thin films are in the range of several tens of nanometers, which is one order of magnitude higher than the crystallite size calculated from XRD patterns. The optical properties of these films have been studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The
    absorbance and transmittance spectra have been recorded in the wavelength range of (300-900) nm in order to study the optical properties. The optical energy gap for allowed direct electronic transition was calculated using Tauc’s equation and it is found to be 2.96 eV for the undoped Nickel Ferrite thin films. The optical constants including absorption coefficient (α), extinction coefficient (Kₒ), real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant were also calculated as a function of photon energy. In order to investigate the dispersion behavior of the refractive index of the prepared thin films, two terms of Cauchy's equation was applied to the n- λ data and the static refractive index (no) was calculated for all samples.

On The Schultz Polynomials and Indices of a Regular Graph Harary H2r+1, 2m+1

Mohammad Reza Farahani, M.R. Rajesh Kanna and Wei Gao

  • Abstract

    Let G= (V,E) be a simple connected graph. The sets of vertices and edges of G are denoted by V=V (G) and E=E(G) , respectively. The Wiener index W(G) is defined as the sum of distances between all pairs of vertices of the G. The Schultz and modified Schultz indices ................ ............
    ( See the article)

Investigation the Shielding Properties of Alumina Reinforced Composites

A. M. Osman, A. M. Abdel-Monem and F. F. Mansour Aly

  • Abstract

    The present wok deals with the shielding properties of polymer composites using neutrons and gamma rays emitted from 252Cf neutron source. Polymer composites with different Aluminum oxide percentage (x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt. %) have been prepared. The shielding parameters for the prepared samples have been determined using the narrow beam transmission method. The transmitted neutrons and gamma rays was measured using neutron/gamma spectrometer incorporate stilbene organic scintillator. The pulse shape discriminating (P.S.D.) technique based on the zero cross-over method was used to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray pulses. The obtained data are presented in the form of neutron and gamma spectra measured behind the prepared samples. The spectra measured behind the prepared samples were used to derive the fast neutron macroscopic effective removal cross-section ΣR (cm-1) and the total attenuation coefficients μ (cm-1) for total gamma rays. The displayed results indicated that the constructed materials show good radiation protection properties.

On the Szeged, Revised Szeged and Normalized Revised Szeged Indices of Circumcoronene Series of Benzenoid Hk

Mohammad Reza Farahani, M.R. Rajesh Kanna and Wei Gao

  • Abstract

    Let G be a simple molecular graph without directed and multiple edges and without loops, the vertex and edge-sets of which are represented by V(G) and E(G), respectively. A topological index of a graph G is a numeric quantity related to G which is invariant under automorphisms of G. The Szeged index was introduced by Gutman, and denoted by Sz(G) (or, more precisely, Szv(G)) and is defined as............................................................................................( see the article)

Estimation of Errors in Newton’s Divided Difference Formula for Polynomial Interpolation of Functions x1/2, x1/3 and x1/4 in the interval [1, 2]

Dilli Raj Neupane

  • Abstract

    The interval [1, 2] has been divided into 10 equal parts and the Newton’s divided difference formula has been obtained. With the help of this formula, the values of the functions x1/2, x1/3 and x1/4 have been calculated at the points 1.01, 1.02, 1.03, …., 2.00. Percentage errors in the values calculated using Newton’s divided difference formula at each point have been calculated. Average percentage error in the interpolation of each function has been found out which shows that x1/3 is better interpolated as compared to x1/3 and x1/4.

Mayank Karan Singh Ranawat, Ajit Kumar Bhabor and Ghanshyam Singh Rathore

Five Dimensional LRS Bianchi Type-I String Cosmological Model in Lyra Manifold

  • Abstract

    Five dimensional LRS Bianchi type-I string cosmological model is investigated in Lyra geometry. Considering the suitable form of the gauge function, which fit in observation, a cosmological model is obtained. Some physical and kinematical implications of model are also discussed.